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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1891, by 

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Typography by J. S. Gushing & Co., Boston. Presswork by Berwick & Smith, Boston. 


THE HANDBOOK OF AMHERST has been prepared in the hope of 
affording its readers a comprehensive view of one of the most 
attractive little towns of Western Massachusetts; and it is believed 
to be the first attempt at combining in one volume the matters of 
permanent interest to residents, strangers, and college students alike. 

While the information, covering this broad field, is greatly con- 
densed in order to produce a book of convenient size, no effort has 
been spared to make it accurate, as well as complete in every 

Other than that of being a " handbook," the volume has no pre- 
tensions. With it as a guide, the visitor to Amherst can see every- 
thing of any importance in the town and the surrounding country; 
and to both residents and students it should prove a valuable 

Without the assistance of many of the friends of the town and its 
colleges, the publication of the book in its present form would not 
have been possible. The names of all those who have aided in 
gathering material, and in correcting the manuscript and proofs, can- 
not be mentioned, but among them were : Dr. William S. Tyler, 
President M. E. Gates, President H. H. Goodell, Dr. Edward 
Hitchcock, William A. Dickinson, Esq., Professor Charles Wellington, 
Professor W. P. Brooks, Charles O. Parmenter, and Rev. D. W. 



Marsh. To these and many others, whose suggestions have been 
most valuable, cordial acknowledgments of their kindnesses are due. 
The photographs, from which the large majority of the illustrations 
were made, were the work of Mr. J. L. Lovell, of Amherst. A few 
were furnished by Mr. H. N. Potter, of the class of 1891 in Am- 
herst College, and by the Notman Photographic Company of Boston. 
A number of the illustrations of scenes outside of Amherst, that 
otherwise would not have been presented here, are loaned by Wade, 
Warner & Co., of Northampton, from " Picturesque Hampshire." A 
picture from the "92 Olio" is also used. 

June, eighteen hundred and ninety-one. 




















Agricultural and Physical Laboratory, 183. 
Alpha Delta Phi House, The Old, 137. 
Alpha Delta Phi House, The New, 139. 
Amherst, Jeffrey, First Lord, 9. 
Amherst House, The, 57. 
Appleton 'Cabinet ; Amherst College, 121. 

Barrett Gymnasium, The, 124. 
Belchertown Common, A View of, 45. 
Beta Theta Pi House, The, 149. 
Birthplace of Charles Dudley Warner at 

Plainfield, 23. 

Botanic Museum and Plant House, 185. 
Bryant's Home at Cummington, 22. 

Chapel and Dormitories, The; Amherst 
College, 125. 

Chapel and Library, The; Agricultural 
College, 167. 

Chemical Laboratory, The; Agricultural 
College, 179. 

Chi Phi House, The, 151. 

College Church, The ; Amherst College, 115. 

College Hall, 95. 

Common, looking toward Amherst Col- 
lege, The, 53. 

Delta Kappa Epsilon House, The, 133. 

Delta Upsilon House, The, 159. 

Drill Hall, The ; Agricultural College, 163. 

Elm Street in Hatfield, 38. 

Ferry, A Picturesque, 32. 

First Congregational Meeting-House and 
Parsonage in 1788, 77. 

First Congregational Church, 79. 

First Victoria Regia grown without Arti- 
ficial Heat, The, 43. 

Fishing-Rod Factory, The, 40. 

Flower Field at Pansy Park, A, 42. 

Grace Episcopal Church, 61. 

Grand Stand on Pratt Field, The, 129. 

Glimpse of Smith College, A, 36. 

Hatfield, Elm Street in, 38. 

Henry T. Morgan Library, The ; Amherst 

College, 99. 
Huntington Estate, The, 37. 

Insectary, The; Agricultural College, 187. 
Jeffrey, First Lord Amherst, 9. 

Laboratory Building, The ; Agricultural 

College, 177. 
Library, The Henry T. Morgan ; Amherst 

College, 99. 

Library, The Chapel and; Agricultural 

College, 167. 
Looking toward North Amherst, 39. 

Main Street, Amherst, 71. 

Map of Amherst, 49. 

Mather Art Collection, The, 109. 

Mill Valley, 75. 

Mount Holyoke, 34. 

Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, 47. 

Mount Lincoln, The Tower on, 41. 

Mount Pleasant House, 67. 

Mount Warner, Looking toward, 17. 

North Amherst Center, 83. 
North College Dormitory, The ; Agricultu- 
ral College, 175. 
North Hadley, A Scene in, 19. 
North Pleasant Street, 64. 

Oak Grove School, 73. 

Observatory, Woods Cabinet and; Amherst 

College, 136. 
Ox-Bow in 1840 and 1890, from Mount 

Holyoke, The, 24. 

Pansy Park, A Flower Field in, 42. 
Phi Delta Theta House, The, 155. 
Picturesque Ferry, A, 32. 
Pond in Belchertown, The, 44. 
Pratt Gymnasium, The, 119. 
President's House, The; Amherst Col- 
lege, 101. 
Psi Upsilon House, The, 143. 

Russell Church and Elmwood House in 
Hadley, The, 35. 

Scene in North Hadley, A, 19. 
Smith College, A Glimpse of, 36. 
South Amherst Center, 85. 
South College Dormitory, The ; Agricultu- 
ral College, 171. 

Theta Delta Chi House, The, 145. 

" The Terrace," 69. 

Town Hall, The, 65. 

Tower on Mount Lincoln, The, 41. 

Town from the College Chapel, The, 91. 

View from the College Library, Amherst 

College, 89. 
View of Belchertown Common, A, 45. 

Walker Hall, in. 

West Street of Hadley, The, 27. 

Williston Hall, 105. 

Woods Cabinet and Observatory, 136. 



7T MHERST was settled from the west. It lies among 
^Y tne lower foot-hills of the Green Mountains, east 
of old Hadley, of which it long formed a part. It 
took one hundred years for the tide of English immigra- 
tion to get less than one hundred miles inland from the 
shores of Massachusetts Bay to Amherst. The movement, 
like that of the Pilgrims through Holland to Plymouth 
Rock, was roundabout, first southeastward, into the 
State of Connecticut ; thence northward, along the river 
to Hadley ; and finally eastward, involving the entrance 
to Amherst from the west. 

The original settlers, coming mainly from Hadley and 
from Hatfield, then a part of Hadley, were nearly all the 
descendants of the earliest Hadley settlers. Their ancestors, with few 
exceptions, had come from England to Massachusetts Bay between 1631 
and 1635, an d finding near the shore less land and less freedom than 
they wished, sent explorers, in 1633, by land and water to the Con- 
necticut River. In 1635 an d l6 3 6 tnev moved through the wilderness 
to the fertile valley, settling at Wethersfield and Hartford. There they 
remained for almost a generation, until religious disputes in 1759 and 
1 760 led a part of the body to move to Hadley. 


It is interesting to look back upon the principles which caused the 
division of the Connecticut settlements. The differences at Hartford 
occasioning the up-river movement sprang largely from divergent theo- 
ries of government. The friends of Rev. John Hooker, known in England 
as the light of the western churches, sought to obtain a larger personal 
liberty denied them at Hartford. The first lecture of this good man at 
Hartford sounded a note that should never be forgotten in the history 
of liberty in Massachusetts and Connecticut, and it foreshadowed in a 
wonderful manner the truths which lay at the basis of the Federal 
government founded more than a century later. 

On a Thursday, the ist of May, 1638, his text was, "Take you wise 
men, and understanding, and known among your tribes, and I will make 
them rulers over you " (Deut. i. 13). He laid down " Doctrine i. That 
the choice of the public magistrates belongs unto the people by God's 
own allowance. 2. The privilege of election which belongs to the 
people, therefore, must be exercised not according to their humors, but 
according to the blessed will and law of God. 3. They who have power 
to appoint officers and magistrates, it is their power also to set bounds 
and limitations of the power and place to which they call them." And 
he gave as reasons : " i . Because the foundation of authority is laid 
firstly in the free consent of the people. 2. Because, by a free choice, 
the hearts of the people will be more inclined to the laws of the persons, 
and more ready to yield." 

On such broad principles were the early inhabitants of the Connecticut 
Valley nurtured, and such principles were especially cherished by the 
parents and grandparents of the first settlers of Amherst. 

Sixty-eight years intervened between the occupation of Hadley in 
1659 and the settlement of Amherst, although the lands of the latter 
place were more elevated, lay but four miles away, and were within the 
boundaries of the town. 

The history of Hadley's own " Middle Street " makes this fact not at 
all surprising. It was not occupied for fifty-three years after the " West 
Street," and in 1720 it had only twenty families. The lots were first 
laid out by vote of the town in 1684. In 1687 most of them were given 
to inhabitants of the town on condition that they build within three 
years. An Indian war breaking out the following year, no one dared 
live outside of the fortifications ; and the grants had to be renewed in 


1690 and 1692, only to be further delayed in their settlement by the 
French and Indian War until 1713. 

In addition to the motive of personal safety, the wish to be near the 
common meeting-house, and to perpetuate the home and village life of 
England, did much to influence the people to move, when they did 
move, in large rather than in small bodies. The flow of population 
from England was checked about that time, thus retarding the growth 
of the colonies away from the seacoast. 

It is very clear that the Hadley settlers did not realize the value of 
the land lying at a distance from the river. They complained in 1673 
that most of their woodland was a " barren pine-plain, capable of very 
little improvement," and accordingly their boundaries were widened by 
the General Court so as to " run five miles up the river and five miles 
down the river and six miles from their meeting-house eastward." This 
grant gave them all the land now included in the town of Amherst, but 
ten years after they begged for more, saying that " the inhabitants are 
shut up on the east and north by a desolate and barren desert," and 
" the young people are straightened for want of enlargement and remove 
to remote places " rather than live in Amherst. This petition brought 
them in May, 1683, an addition four miles square between Hadley and 
Springfield, extending eastward from the Connecticut River. It proved 
useless to them during the Indian wars, and was not even surveyed 
until 1715. 

The following vote, passed by the town of Hadley on tke 4th of 
March, 1 700, may still be deciphered in the old record-book, and it 
shaped for all time the positions of the main streets and the lots of 
Amherst, then known as East Hadley : 

" Voted by the town, that three miles and one-quarter eastward from the meeting- 
house, and so from the north side of Mount Holyoke unto Mill River, shall lye as 
common lands forever, supposing that the line will take in the new swamp. 

" Voted, that the rest of the commons, eastward, shall be laid out in three divisions, 
that is to say, between the road leading to Brookfield, and the Mill River, notwith- 
standing there is liberty for the cutting of wood and timber so long as it lieth 
unfenced ; there is likewise to be left between every division forty rods for highways, 
and what will be necessary to be left for highways eastward and West through every 
division, is to be left to the discretion of the measurers ; and every one to have a 
proportion in the third division, and every householder to have a ^50 allotment and 
all others who are now the proper inhabitants of Hadley, 16 years old and upward, 
to have a ^25 allotment in said commons." 


Rendered into language that is more intelligible at the present day, 
this vote meant to reserve forever as common property the tract of land 
lying between Mount Holyoke on the south, and Mill River on the 
north, and extending from the "West Street" of Hadley eastward to a 
north and south line three and a quarter miles from the meeting-house, 
then standing in the middle of the street. The land east of this " Inner 
Commons," the present Amherst, was to be divided into three sections 
separated by highways running north and south, which are now repre- 
sented by Pleasant and East streets, and these to be intersected by 
cross-streets, running east and west. 

Things moved slowly in those days, and it was three years later 
May, 1 703 when the town measurers announced that the instructions 
of the vote had been carried out. Portions of East Hadley were allotted 
to individuals, whether they became settlers or remained in the old 
street, and the same names occur in the record of this division of 
land as may be found in the later division of South Hadley. The allot- 
ments were not made so much for immediate settlement as to allow 
the separate ownership of wood, pasture, and swamp lands, and most 
of those who were given lots never intended to reside upon them. So 
it was not until 1727 or 1728 that the new territory began to be occu- 
pied, although tradition relates that a hardy woodsman named Foote 
attempted unsuccessfully to live by fishing and trapping near what is 
known as " East Street." For years that portion of the town lying just 
north of .the Second Congregational meeting-house had the name of 
" Foote's Folly Swamp." 

The three divisions of East Hadley are plainly indicated to-day by 
the two north and south roads, of which the village common and the 
East Street common are parts. Both of these highways, originally forty 
rods wide, have been narrowed from time to time as the roadways 
became improved, and there was less need of making detours to avoid 
the hummocks and treacherous mud- holes which first rendered trav- 
elling sinuous. Recent measurements made for The Handbook of 
Amherst locate this west highway as lying between the stone carriage 
block in front of the Amherst House on Amity Street and the residence 
of H. B. Edwards on Lessey Street. The present position of Amity 
Street is nearly that of the middle one of the three cross-highways laid 
out in the same width. In 1754, Hadley reduced the west street to 
twenty rods' width, and the east street to twelve, and a large part of the 


business of the precinct meetings for fifteen years from 1767 to 1782 
was to discontinue parts of these broad highways. 

. The first of the three divisions was bounded by the line, " three miles 
and one-quarter from the Meeting-house," at Hadley and the west 
street, now Pleasant Street ; the second division lay between the west 
and east streets, and the third extended a mile from the east street to 
the Pelham hills. The first two were two hundred and forty rods wide, 
and all stretched from the Bay road on the south to the Mill River on 
the north. Ninety-seven persons received lots in either the first or the 
second divisions, and all were given sections in the third for pasture 

The first authentic record that the grants of land in East Hadley had 
been occupied is in the vote of Hadley, January 5, 1730, to lay out an 
acre of land for a cemetery for the " east inhabitants," who are known to 
have numbered at that time eighteen families. The names of these 
early settlers are John Ingram, Sr., John Ingram, Jr., Ebenezer Kellogg, 
John Cowls, Jonathan Cowls, Samuel Boltwood, Samuel Hawley, Na- 
thaniel Church, John Wells, Aaron Smith, Nathaniel Smith, Richard 
Chauncey, Stephen Smith, John Nash, Jr., Joseph Wells, Ebenezer 
Scovil, Ebenezer Ingram, Ebenezer Dickinson. Twelve of these men 
came from Hadley, and the others from Hatfield. 

The first step toward the separation of the two settlements was taken 
in 1733, when Hadley voted that the " east inhabitants have a part of 
their taxes abated upon their hiring a minister of their own," previous to 
this every one being obliged to make the journey to the meeting-house 
at old Hadley for Sabbath worship. The parishes were finally divided 
by an act of the General Court, December 31, 1734, making East Had- 
ley the " Third Precinct " of Hadley on the condition of its settling a 
"learned orthodox minister," and erecting a meeting-house. The 
decree of the General Court bounded the new precinct, it " Being of 
the contents of two miles and three-quarters in breadth, and seven 
miles in length, bounded Westerly on a tract of land reserved by the 
town of Hadley, to lye as common forever, Southerly on Boston road, 
Easterly on Equivalent lands, and Northerly on the town of Sunderland." 

While the church affairs of the precinct thus became distinct from 
those of the parent village, town business was still transacted in the 
original settlement, and the town officers were almost entirely from that 


The first minister of the Third Precinct, the Rev. David Parsons, who 
was born at Maiden, began his labors in November, 1735, settling per- 
manently four years later, when he was given money and land for 
building a house, and was promised ^100 salary, with an increase in 
proportion to the growth of the population. The meeting-house begun 
in 1 738 was located upon the site of the present college Observatory, 
and, although not completed until 1753, was occupied some time prior 
to 1742. The history of this First Congregational Church is traced at 
some length in another portion of this book. It suffices to say here 
that its development and growth were parallel with the development and 
growth of the town, the paths diverging only when later religious differ- 
ences resulted in the establishment of the Second Parish, and the town, 
as a political body, discontinued its support of public worship. 

In 1739 Oliver Partridge resurveyed the town of Hadley, determining 
what still remains the eastern boundary of Amherst. He followed the 
provisions of the grant to Hadley in 1673, finding the point exactly six 
miles east of the old meeting-house, and running by compass a north 
and south line through it. The first surveyors had done their work 
without a compass, but they were in reality more accurate than Partridge, 
for the magnetic variation changed the line so that the lots in the 
southern part of the third division were widened considerably, while 
those at the north were narrowed. To offset this loss of territory, the 
town allowed about six hundred acres on the Flat Hills to those who 
had suffered by the relocation of the line. 

The Third Precinct of Hadley sent its share of men to the Indian wars 
that raged intermittently up and down the beautiful valley of the Con- 
necticut between the years of 1744 and 1763. Many brave men were 
sacrificed, but among those surviving, several gained the prominence and 
ability that placed them at the front at the opening of the Revolutionary 

The year 1 749 finds the first indication that the settlement is alive to 
the necessity of providing the rising generation with opportunities for 
gaining some education. Appropriations, liberal for the times, were 
made " to Hire three School Dames for three or four Months in the 
Summer seson to Larne children to read." The pupils met at the 
teachers' homes, for there were no school-houses until after 1 764, when 
four were ordered to be built, a " North, a South, a West Middle, and a 
South East Middle." Josiah Pierce began to teach October 27, 1765. 


He was the first school-master, and spent part of the year at each of the 
" Middle " school-houses. A graduate of Harvard College, he was paid 
$5.33 a month, adding to this by keeping an evening school, and preach- 
ing at the churches of the surrounding places for twenty shillings a Sun- 
day. It is not at all surprising that " he dismissed his school in disgust 
March 29, 1769," as the records have it. The school-house of this 
hard-working pedagogue stood upon the village common near the spot 
now marked by the watering- trough. In 1 784 Amherst voted " to set 
up six schools." It is interesting to notice that before Amherst College 
had graduated a single student, thirty-nine Amherst boys had obtained 
degrees, thirteen from Williams, ten from Dartmouth, seven from Yale, 
and three from Harvard. 

Owing to the incorporation of South Hadley as a district in 1753, the 
name " East Hadley " was changed to the " Second Precinct of Had- 
ley," and six years later, just a century after the founding of Hadley, the 
" Second Precinct " was made a district. Governor Pownell, in signing 
the act of incorporation, February 13, 1 759, gave it the name of Amherst, 
in honor of General Jeffrey Amherst, prominent at that time as the com- 
mander of the memorable expedition against Louisburg, and still later 
as commander-in-chief and field marshal of the English armies. In 
1776 General Amherst was created a baron. 

The new district held its first legal meeting March 19, 1759. From 
that time on, the spirit of independence and thrift seemed to take a 
firmer hold upon the people. They toiled diligently for the betterment 
of their estates, laying aside the generous store of English money 
that was to prove so useful during the hard times of the approach- 
ing war. 

Much of the public business previously centering exclusively in the 
mother settlement was transferred to Amherst, with the beneficial results 
always attending an interest in home affairs. In 1758 the white popu- 
lation actually outnumbered that of Hadley, and in 1776 had become 
some two hundred greater than in any of the surrounding villages. 
Nearly all the material conditions of the district surpassed those of the 
three villages which originally belonged to Hadley. 

Regular communication was opened with Boston in 1767 by the enter- 
prise of Simeon Smith, an Amherst citizen. Previous to that time all 
travelling had been done on horseback ; but Smith possessed a wagon 
that is recorded as being strong enough to bear a ton of freight. He 


made a trip, by way of the old Bay road, in about a week, and found 
sufficient trade to bring him a good profit, the most remunerative part 
of his business being the importation of great quantities of New England 

Youthful Amherst was not without its " ordinaries," or taverns, even 
in the days of its smallest population. Ebenezer Kellogg was licensed 
in 1734, .as the first ordinary- keeper. He kept his place for only three 
years, but within the next few years his successors were so numerous 
that a record of them would be wearisome. At the time he opened his 
tavern, the men of the town numbered twenty-nine, and only three 
hundred and fifty acres of land had been cleared and improved. One 
groggery for every sixty persons, the records say, was the proportion in 
1 783, when there were seven hundred inhabitants. 

All this time the residents on the outskirts of the district had been 
journeying several miles each Sabbath day to attend church services in 
the village. In 1772 they united in advocating a division of the origi- 
nal parish so that the north and south sections of the district should 
each have a church, the one in the centre to be discontinued. The 
same instincts that influence men to-day were no less active then, and 
the prospect of having their place of worship removed to an inconven- 
ient distance so alarmed the villagers that they begged the General 
Court to interfere in the matter. Their petition was an able document. 
The records show that a committee from the august body of legislators 
visited Amherst in March, 1774, but their report and the entire question 
was soon forgotten in the excitement of the war immediately following. 
Church matters did not become prominent again until 1781. A part of 
the parish withdrew in accordance with a vote passed October 15, 1782, 
and constituted themselves the Second Congregational Parish. They 
had opposed the selection of Rev. David Parsons, Jr., to succeed his 
father as pastor, but were overruled by the majority. The incorporation 
of this new parish marked the end of the control of religious affairs by 
the district. 

Amherst assumed the privileges of a town about this time by electing 
Nathaniel Dickinson, Jr., a representative to the Provincial Congress, 
which met successively at Salem, Concord, and Cambridge. The name 
of "town," used without authority in the records after 1776, was legal- 
ized by a general law of the State in 1876. 

Amherst must have proved a warm place for the Tories of the Revo- 


Page 9. 




lutionary times. The character of the American ancestry of the early 
settlers of Hadley and Amherst, especially of that from Hartford, would 
lead one to expect to find men ready to stand up for freedom and 
human rights at the risk of life and property. With most of the men 
of Amherst this was true, but, as in not a few cases elsewhere, the highly 
educated classes were more loyal to the king of England and opposed 
to the popular idea of freedom, than the body of the people. The 
names of these opponents of the war included many of the leading 
citizens, at the head of whom was no less a personage than the 
Rev. David Parsons, Sr. Besides censuring and even imprisoning 
several .of these obnoxious persons for being " notoriously inimical to 
American liberty," the town voted to support whatever action the 
Continental Congress might take for the safety of the colonies, and 
in January, 1776, actually deprived those "not owning independence 
of the crown of Great Britain " of the right of voting upon town 

Even if former leaders be lukewarm and hostile at the time of a 
revolution in thought or action, the people find new men to go before 
them in the paths they are determined to tread. It was so at Amherst. 
Men less polished than collegians, some of them diamonds in the rough, 
some profane, came to the front in place of the more accomplished 
Royalist scholars and gentlemen. 

These men entered into correspondence with the Committee of Cor- 
respondence at Boston. Having " Red and Considered " the letter 
from Boston, they voted, March 14, 1774, to send a reply. Their letter 
was not a triumph of spelling or oratory, but it was a mine of sturdy 
sense. They had no more respect for capitals than for kings. One 
may not forget that Noah Webster and his spelling-book had not yet 
appeared, and often in the antique dress of the letters of the time there 
is something so grotesque as to cause a smile ; but one feels, when 
reading the quaint spelling, much as did Dr. Holmes at the sight of the 
old man, in " The Last Leaf" : 

" I know it is a sin 
For me to sit and grin 

At him here; 

But the old three-cornered hat, 
And the breeches, and all that, 

Are so queer." 


But, after all, our own spelling is unreasonable, and the letter of the 
patriots is too earnest for more than momentary merriment. This is 
what they wrote : 

" To the Respectable Committee of Correspondence in the town of Boston. 

" Gentn. : We think it needless to Recapitulate all those grievancses Which we 
suffer in Common with our opprest Brethren and Neighbors. Sufficient to Say that 
tho we' have been Long silent we are not insensible of the oppressions we suffer and 
the ruin which threatens us or regardlis of the Diabolical Designs of our Mercenary 
and Manevolent Enemies Foreign- and Domestic and are ready not onley to risque 
but even to Sacrifice our Lives and Properties in Defence of our just rights & liberties 
at Present we are only Galled not subdued and think ourselves heapy in having such 
vigilant and faithfull gardians of our rights in the Metropolis on hoom we Can Depend 
to Call on us in Season to unite with our suffering Countrymen in the Common Cause 
of America we hope and beg that you will Still Persevere in that most Honorrble & 
importent Imployment of watching over us with the Same Care and Fidelity which 
has hitherto Distinguish,d & grately Dignified your Characters in the Estimation of 
all who have a just sence of that best of Blessings Liberty & an Equal abhorence of 
that tame submition which tends to Entail on our Posterrity that worst of Curses 

" Every Avenue to the Royal Ear seems to be blocked up by the gross falsities & 
Designd Misrepresentations of those from sum of whom at Least we might have 
Expected better things but there is a King who Cannot be Deceived & who will not 
be mocked who has pointed out a never failing resource when Petitions & Remon- 
stances, Truth & justice are unsuccessfully opposed to Tironey and Oppression fals- 
hood & Corruption & when you feel that impulse which will not brook longer Delay, 
the wisdum of the People will naturally write in mode of the best Appeal, to which 
you most Distant Brethren Expect to be summoned unless prevent,d by a sudding 
unexpected & very favourable Chandge of affears. their are whom Justice forbids to 
live but whom we would spare to Convince the world we Despise their utmost hate 
& malicious Cunning, the Colonies united are invinciably free & we dout not you 
are Convinc,d that the Preservation of that union outweighs every other Considera- 
tion and is at Present our most Important Concern, while that is secure we have 
nothing to fear but may Laugh at all attempts to Enslave us we know of no punish- 
ment which Can be Inflicted on those vilens in Exalted Stations adequate to their 
own reflections & remorse accompanyd with our Neglect, Contempt & Detestation 
but at the same time should think ourselves happier if Everey banefull Noxious weed 
Could by aney means be Eradicated from this our fair garden of Liberty, we Entirely 
approve & Concurr with you in every measure hitherto adopted & Conducted & return 
our gratefull thanks to the People of Boston & the Neighboring towns in a Perticuler 
manner for the seasonable Indeavours & mandley opposition to prevent the Landing 
of the East India Companys teas which plan we are Convinc,d was artefully Projected 
to open the gate for the admition of Tyrany & oppression with all their Rapacious 
followers to Stalk at Large & uncontrol,d to Ravage our fare & Dear bought Posses- 


sions. Everey measure which shall appear Conducive to the Publick good we are 
warranted to assure you will always be approved & support,d by a Large Majorrity in 
this District and [y?]our Continual Correspondence as Long as you shall think occa- 
tion requires meet with Due respect & attention we are in behalf of the District very 

" Gent'm 

" your oblig'd & most hble, servts 




Their actions fully sustained their words. The usual committees of 
" Correspondence," " Safety," and " Inspection " were chosen, and 
among the members were many who figured prominently in the affairs 
of the colonies. A representative was sent to the Provincial Congress, 
and in June, 1776, it was voted "That, should the Honorable Congress 
for the safety of the United Colonies in America ; Declare them Inde- 
pendant of the Kingdom of Great Britain ; we the inhabitants of the 
town of Amherst solemnly engage with our lives and fortunes to support 
them in the measure." 

Following April 19, 1775, Captain Reuben Dickinson gathered a com- 
pany of minute-men, who were under his call between two and four 
weeks, and at their disbanding he enlisted an eight-months company, of 
which the noted Daniel Shays of Shutesbury, the leader of the " Shays' 
Rebellion," was a non-commissioned officer. Amherst men joined other 
companies in varying numbers. A company under the command of 
Captain James Hendrick of Amherst obtained a good many. Captain 
Dickinson's command, and several of the others having men from the 
town, were at the battle of Bunker Hill. 

Later companies gathered by Captain Dickinson, Captain Harvey, 
and Captain Cook, from Amherst and the vicinity, were in General 
Gates' army, fought in the battles of September 19 and October 7, 1777, 
and saw the surrender of General Burgoyne. Half of the English army 
and the defeated general himself, passed through Hadley and along the 
Bay road, then the southern boundary line of the town, on their way to 
Boston. To this day one of the old families of Hadley are in possession 
of a sword presented by General Burgoyne to one of the citizens of the 


During the campaigns of 1777 until 1781, Amherst furnished its due 
proportion of men, distributed through several companies, and in many 
instances brave and efficient officers. Liberal bounties, formally offered 
by the town to the enlisting men, rapidly drained the store of hard 
money that had been laid up by the thrifty farm folk. The Continental 
bills depreciated in value until in 1780 a dollar in silver would buy a 
hundred of them, and a year after two hundred. Old soldiers boasted 
after the hard times were over, that $50 had often been paid for a single 

The first of the rewards of the courage, with which each new depriva- 
tion of the war had been met, came, when the inhabitants of the town 
assembled on the 4th day of September, 1780, bringing in their votes 
for a governor of the new commonwealth, as follows : " The Hon'ble 
John Hancock Esq'r, Forty three ; The Hon'ble James Bowdoin Esq'r 

In the State convention which ratified the Federal Constitution, the 
Amherst representative, Daniel Cooley, probably reflected the wishes of 
his constituents when he voted against ratification. There were several 
years about this time when the town failed to send its representatives to 
the General Court, and at least twice it was fined for this neglect. 

An interesting description of the town in 1800 has been given in Dr. 
Tyler's able " History of Amherst College." At that time the only store 
in the village stood at the corner of what afterward became Phoenix 
Row and North Pleasant Street. At the opposite end of the row was 
the house later occupied by Noah Webster. A vigorous distillery stood 
within the square bounded by the Common and Spring and College 
streets, entirely at variance, happily be it said, with the present ideas of 
sobriety. The situation of the home of Levi Cowles, on North Pleasant 
Street, and of Mrs. Emerson, the Judge Strong estate, mark the former 
width of the two highways, for these buildings are among the few then 

In 1814 eight hundred acres of Hadley were added at the northwest 
corner of the town, and in 1815 the southern boundary was changed 
from the Bay road to the top of the Holyoke range. At this time there 
were not more than twenty-five houses in the village. Until several 
years after the college was founded the centre of trade and enterprise 
was at East Amherst, and there the town-meetings were held. 

Amherst became prominent in 1787 through Shays' Rebellion, which 


took place almost within her own borders. The deluded soldiery, under 
Daniel Shays, encamped and drilled upon the Pelham hills, and return- 
ing from their rash attempts to defy the Federal authority at Springfield 
and Northampton, were followed by the regular troops across the south- 
ern part of the town to the Pelham hills again, whence they dispersed 

To the War of 1812 the inhabitants of Amherst were bitterly opposed. 
Three citizens were sent to a convention of delegates from the towns of 
Hampshire County, and the memorial then adopted strongly solicited 
the Federal government to come to some terms of peace with Great 
Britain. Notwithstanding this, the demand for troops that came later 
was promptly met by Amherst, as well as the other towns of the 
Connecticut Valley. 

The War of the Rebellion sacrificed the lives of fifty-eight of the 
three hundred and seventy-four volunteers from Amherst ; and the 
expenses, public and private, amounted to more than 46,000. 





THE mellow light of a warm August afternoon lay shimmering over 
a grassy meadow road. No fences divided the rich farm lands on 
either side from the road, or from one another. The hum and 
buzz of innumerable insects filled the fragrant air, while distant sounds 
of mowing could be heard at intervals, as the rowan was being here 
and there gathered in by thrifty farmers. 

Nearer at hand fields of tropical-leaved tobacco sent out a slightly 
pungent odor, while an occasional tall stalk, crowned with its delicate 
pink blossoms, was allowed to ripen and go to seed in the summer 

In the eyes of two travellers, driving leisurely along this lovely way, 
the whole scene was richly, sensuously delightful. As they passed the 
fields of tobacco and of corn, a dull but continuous murmur became 
apparent, growing louder, until a large barn came into view, from which 
the sound emerged. Here a curious, and in this day somewhat unusual, 
sight appeared. Heavy machinery was cutting into small pieces and 
packing into great compressed masses the succulent cornstalks, future 
food for cattle when this verdant meadow should be filled with snow 
and ice. In other words, ensilage was in process of manufacture. 
Farther on, fields of broom-corn, with airily waving tassels, bordered the 
highway. And everywhere were farmhouses with generous barns, large 
orchards in which early apples began to show sun-warmed cheeks, and 
old elms full of dignity and grace. Toward the west flowed a noble 
river, not less than eight hundred feet wide, reflecting the sky on its 
placid surface. Still further west, ranges of misty blue hills filled the 
distance, while nearer rose Mount Warner, the pioneer of all that ancient 
mountain brotherhood. 


In the south lay the rugged and picturesque Holyoke range, and the 
steep sides of Mount Tom beyond the opening where the river has 
scooped its passage. Northward, Mount Toby showed itself in a lumi- 
nous, purple atmosphere, a rich tone modified in Sugarloaf, across the 
river, by its more scarred sides of red sandstone. The gentle slope 
of the Pelham and Shutesbury hills eastward was densely green, and 
but little colored by distance. 

Over all this homelike scene the caressing August sky and sunshine 
brooded tenderly. Where, indeed, could they find a fairer tarrying- place ? 

Looking toward Mount Warner. 

This lovely Connecticut Valley originally the Quon-eh-ti-cut, promi- 
nent in four States, no less than twenty miles wide in Massachusetts, the 
garden-spot of New England, rich, fertile, and beautiful is full of 
interest to the geologist, the naturalist, and the historian, as well as 
to him who merely appreciates the rare beauty of its scenery, or the 
promise of its luxuriant crops. 

Pre-eminently a farming region, the valley has also many manufac- 
turing interests, as Holyoke, Springfield, and its other cities amply testify. 
But its pastoral character remains, and the beauty of its sweet meadows 
is as yet untouched. 


Many types of old- New England houses abound. Hadley, Deerfield, 
and some of the earlier villages still preserve the colonial shapes and 
ornaments, the fan-lights above the doors, and the old hip and gambrel 
roofs. Somewhat later, a far less beautiful style came into vogue. The 
hall, instead of running straight-forwardly through the centre of the house, 
giving ample room for stairways, became contracted to a mere entrance 
lobby, barely large enough to contain a door into the rooms on either 
side, while a steep and narrow stairway was forced to contort itself cruelly 
in order to rise at all. These houses, however, have large, though low- 
ceiled rooms, and frequently, parlor cupboards in the wainscoted wall, 
large fireplaces, and elaborately carved window and door ornaments. 
Still later, came the first " modern " white, green-blinded country house 
with a side wing. A single path generally leads to the rarely used front 
door, diverging just before reaching its chilling hospitality into a branch 
walk to the more homelike side door, where all is cheerful and merry, 
where family life surges in and out over the stone doorstep, and hens 
peck contentedly about the short grass. Yet another style of farm- 
house appears, whose long row of sheds and out-buildings reaches to an 
astonishing distance, terminating in an immense barn by which the 
modest and insignificant dwelling is completely overshadowed. 

Sturdy and pious as the earlier inhabitants were, steadfast of purpose, 
and of noble lives, their aesthetic sense must have been very much in 
abeyance. Too sadly common is the fashion in this fair region, where 
Nature spreads her most tempting glories, of setting an uncompromising 
barn directly between the house and a wonderful view of mountain and 
vale which any summer tourist would go miles to see for an hour. 

The inoffensive little house is perhaps perched close to the highway, 
and directly across the road, in its face and eyes, rises the dignified 
shelter of cattle and hay, shutting off all possible outlook. 

The age of the mansard roof infliction is still apparent; but later 
taste has displaced its ugliness, and smooth, well-kept lawns now often 
lead to charming houses of our own day, which, while preserving the 
best features of early colonial architecture, have added without and 
within the beauty of a more cultured and many-sided life. 

Very rich in flowers, ferns, and mosses is this favored valley. In late 
spring the shady roads are lighted by the pale pink of the laurel, set in 
its dark green leaves ; and earlier, arbutus, hepaticas, anemones, and all 
the brave company of early blossoms fill the woods. Columbine and 


cowslips, wild azalia, scarlet " painted-cup " and pimpernel, loose strife, 
meadow-lilies, yellow and scarlet, give place to hosts of wild roses and 
clematis, while yet later come cardinal flowers and closed gentians, the 
tiny five-leaved gentian and its royal fringed brother, brilliant black- 
alder berries glowing in the sun ; and last of all the weird witch-hazel holds 
sway in the bare November woods, companioned by airy ghosts from the 
milkweed pots, and spectral maiden-hair, white in its secluded recesses. 
And when 

"The murmuring of bees has ceased, 

But murmuring of some 
Posterior, prophetic, 

Has simultaneous come," 


" Besides the autumn poets sing, 

A few prosaic days 
A little this side of the snow, 
And that side of the haze. 

"Still is the bustle in the brook, 

Sealed are the spicy valves, 
Mesmeric fingers softly touch 

The eyes of many elves." 


A merely technical list of all the floral beauties of the region would 
fill a goodly volume. Professor Tuckerman's catalogue of the lichens 
shows their rare variety and number, and the ferns are no less noteworthy. 

Partridges drum undisturbed in their leafy homes, the rarer quail is 
still a resident, and the meadows and mountain-sides echo to the songs 
of numberless wild birds. 

Song-sparrows and bluebirds greet with throbbing music the early 
spring, after the longest and coldest winter has failed to drive the ener- 
getic bluejay from his covert in pine or hemlock, whence comes his 
" brigadier " note, with all its harshness full of cheer and hopefulness. 
The rose-breasted grosbeak, the pewees, the flaming orioles, the bobo- 
link and meadow-lark, the humming-bird and linnet, the cat-bird with 
its lovely song, the various swallows with their startlingly swift flight, the 
sweet-voiced vireos and warblers, all, and a numerous brotherhood 
beside, fill the crevices of every fragrant spring and summer day with 
their flashing wings and tender songs, voicing the winds and the woods 
and the waters in sweetest melody. The rare red-necked grebe, the 



snowy heron, and the night heron have been seen in the region, as well 
as the yellow-rail, the blue golden-winged warbler, and the yellow- 
breasted chat. 

About one hundred and thirty years ago a few elms were set out here 
and there. Some of these pioneers still survive ; but in general, atten- 
tion to ornamental trees has been given within the present century. 
The old-time Lombardy poplar, with its stiffly sentinel aspect, and its 

Bryant's Home at Cummington. 

shimmering, silvery leaves, was introduced at one time, but its repre- 
sentatives were generally cut down after a few years, and few now 
remain to give their stately dignity to any old homestead. The dis- 
tinctive trees of this grassy, sunny Connecticut Valley are undoubtedly 
its elms. Their graceful branches appear in nearly all of the paintings 
of the region, and wave across the pages of the valley literature. And 
it has been prominent in literature since the early days, from Jonathan 
Edwards in his Northampton home, to the gentler if less profound 
philosophy of Bryant, whose " Story of the Fountain " might well have 
been told of the far-away spring of our noble river. 


Bryant's home in Cummington was one of his two favorite spots for 
writing his poems. His journalistic labors in New York were ever kept 
distinct from his deeply loved country life, where alone he would express 
himself in verse. The names of George Bancroft, Henry Ward Beecher, 
and George William Curtis belong to the valley ; and Dr. J. G. Holland, 
born in Belchertown, wrote of the region in " Kathrina," and " The Bay 
Path." Charles Dudley Warner remembers it in some of his daintiest 
sketches ; and here, too, linger memories of Jenny Lind, whose com- 
pelling voice comes floating down the years in the traditions of a previous 
generation. More lately, George W. Cable's increasing fame adorns 

the Connecticut ; while to Amherst 
belongs the world-wide reputation 

Birthplace of Charles Dudley Warner at Plainfield. 

of " H. H.," and the posthumous fame of Emily Dickinson and her 
strange, strong poems. 

To the geologist, ten thousand years seem but a step. From evidences 
about Amherst and Northampton he assigns this length of time, " one of 
the shortest estimates," as the probable interval since the glacial period. 
In that age, misty and remote enough to the layman, the ice, covering 
all this region, furrowed deeply into the sandstone, particularly north of 
the Holyoke range, largely forming its bold and rugged outline ; it 
piled together other masses into rough hills, leaving in its path bowlders 
and clay and the stony soil so characteristic of New England. 

When this mass of ice, beginning to yield to the oncoming of a more 
genial age, melted in the sun, a great lake was formed, whose height 
was three hundred feet above the sea, and two hundred feet above pres- 
ent low water in the Connecticut River. Its shores were the present 


boundaries of the valley. The surface of the ground over which we 
drive in the mellow August weather, listening to the peaceful farming 
sounds on every hand, was the actual bottom of this great prehistoric 
lake, in whose clays an abundant glacial flora has been found. 

There is evidence that the lake speedily shrunk to almost the present 
size of the river. This " Nile of New England " has gradually deposited 
the rich alluvial meadows, its chief wealth and beauty. 

Swinging through past centuries in other curves than now, it has 

formed seven great " ox-bows," cut- 
ting off subsequently all but the 
famous one, so distinctly seen from 

The Ox-Bow in 1840 and 1890, from Mount Holyoke. 

the summit of Mount Holyoke. Two 
of the others are found to have dis- 
appeared only since the settlement of the valley. Three of the seven 
were in Hatfield, and four in Northampton. 

Ages before even the oncoming of the ice period, earthquakes and 
volcanic explosions carved our valley into a semblance of its present 
shape. Filled with waters from the sea, a narrow inlet or fjord to a 
height above the level of Mount Holyoke, it endured through triassic 

Streams sweeping into the basin deposited sand and gravel flats. In 
these mud shores, animals long extinct and unimaginable made a huge 
procession of footprints since hardened into stone. These have been 
discovered, preserved, and described by the late President Hitchcock of 
Amherst College. Traces of reptiles, insects, fishes, and colossal frogs 


are here found, and also the enormous prints of birds whose size, to 
correspond with their tracks, must have been at least five times that of 
the ostrich. These bird-tracks occur in thirty places through the Con- 
necticut Valley, between the upper strata. Into the late discussions of 
whether these great creatures with feet eighteen or twenty inches long 
were birds or not rather some unknown, three-toed animal we cannot 
enter. It is for us enough to know that the stupendous procession has 
been made to live again by the untiring genius of an enthusiast to whom 
we owe the resurrection of a long-vanished past ; and bird or animal, 
" strange indeed, is this menagerie of remote sandstone days." 

From this weird occupancy of antediluvian monsters to the days when 
the Agawams and other Indian tribes lived their nomadic and warlike 
lives in the fair vale, is a long step for a tense imagination. 

Here, however, they were found ; for how many years they had been 
here, or whence their pioneers may have come, cannot be certainly 
proven. But in 1631 the Connecticut first became known to our own 
forefathers. Early in the autumn of 1633 four men from Dorchester 
first visited its banks. Later, William Pynchon and his little band of 
followers, chiefly planters from Roxbury, came by the famous " Bay 
Path " through a hundred miles of forest to what is now the city of 

An absorbing piety characterized these early settlements, as it had the 
original ones on the coast ; and a " meeting-house " was an earliest care. 
The first framed house was erected by Mr. Pynchon ; and deeds for the 
various allotments of land, the first ever executed in Western Massachu- 
setts, were drawn up whereby a formal purchase was secured from the 
Indians, who held from Nature herself a dateless and unwritten title. 

In all the early settlements it is a pleasant reflection that these legiti- 
mate purchases were always made with the wild but original owners. 

Northampton was subsequently settled, its rich meadow land proving 
very attractive. In 1654 measures were taken here also to build and 
establish a meeting-house. What means of calling the settlers together 
for worship may have been employed is not certainly known. While in 
Springfield this important instrument was a drum, it is believed that a 
large and sonorous cow-bell was first used in Northampton. Later, a 
salary is recorded as being paid for services in " blowing the trumpet," 
presumably for the same purpose. 

In 1659 about fifty settlers established the town of Hadley, its mag- 


nificent street twenty rods wide still bearing evidence to the good taste 
and forethought of those who planned the village. The name of Hadley 
was not given until two years later. Here, as in the first two settle- 
ments, measures were not only promptly taken for establishing churches, 
but schools were equally early in the thought of its founders. 

That this appreciation of education was inherent and vital is shown 
by the noble array of famous educational institutions along the Con- 
necticut to-day. Mount Holyoke College, Smith College, Amherst Col- 
lege, the State Agricultural College, the schools at Northfield, summer 
schools in every direction, and a host of lesser institutions, are the blos- 
soms of that early aspiration and endeavor. 

So far, the terms of agreement with the Indians had been carefully 
kept ; any complaints from them had received immediate attention and 
adjustment, and everything was peaceable and friendly. Notwithstand- 
ing this pleasant state of affairs, military companies were maintained 
against any possibility of danger, as well as fortified houses in every 

In 1662 Hampshire County was established, chiefly unsettled terri- 
tory. It was then much larger than now, for the entire counties of 
Worcester and Berkshire have since been taken from its original boun- 
daries. Deerfield and Hatfield were settled in 1670, and Northfield in 
1673. I n these early days Amherst was a part of Hadley, and it was 
not laid out until 1 703. 

The early peacefulness of the relations between Indians and settlers 
in the valley seems to have been largely due to the just and considerate 
policy of William Pynchon. The outbreak of " King Philip's War," in 
1675, P ut an en( i t this quiet comfort. With a plan which appeared to 
embrace the sweeping away of every settlement from the north down 
the river, Northfield was completely burned by Indians, Deerfield had 
fallen with the terrible massacre at Bloody Brook, and Hatfield, Hadley, 
and Northampton came next. In the meantime, however, the natives 
about Springfield, spurred to emulation by the ghastly deeds in the 
north, had gathered there, and burned nearly everything except the 
fortified houses where the inhabitants had fled for safety. 

In the first attack on Hatfield the skill of the English more than 
matched the numbers of their assailants. 

In Northampton, also, they were repulsed, but only after severe loss 
and destruction. 


Old Hadley is still full of the traditions of those early days. On the 
1 2th of June, 1676, at least seven hundred Indians attacked Hadley. 
It was then and there that the famous stranger, noble in dress and 
manner, dignified and venerable, unable longer to remain an idle spec- 
tator of so terrible events, issued forth and assumed command of the 
English forces, directing them in the most skilfully military manner. 
Encouraging and rallying, now at one point, now at another, his is per- 
haps the most picturesque and impressive figure in all our early history. 

By his aid the Indians were repulsed with slight loss to the English ; 
and, this accomplished, the mysterious stranger disappeared as silently 
and suddenly as he came. With the superstition of the times, it is not 
surprising that he was devoutly believed to be an angel from heaven, 
sent to save the colony in a disastrous crisis. 

It was afterward ascertained that this opportunely guardian angel was 
no other than Goffe, the regicide, who with his father-in-law, Whalley, 
and twenty-eight other judges, had been condemned in England for 
passing sentence of death upon Charles I., and had escaped in 1660. 
Both Goffe and Whalley had been officers of high rank in Cromwell's 
army. Escaping after their sentence, they had found refuge in 1664 a * 
Hadley, unknown to all its inhabitants save the family who sheltered 

In 1678 a peace was concluded, and King Philip finally conquered. 

Beauty in dress and the love of fine clothes did not perish entirely, 
even with a background of bloodshed and slaughter. We learn that in 
1651 a law was passed in Massachusetts, restraining excess in dress. In 
1673 twenty-five wives and five maids were tried before a jury for being 
persons of small estate, yet wearing silk against the law. 

A year later the wife of a Hadley man was again presented for wearing 
silk. She was found guilty, and fined ten shillings. 

At the March court in 1676 sixty-eight persons were presented by the 
jury, among them thirty young men, " some for wearing silk, and that in 
a flaunting manner, and others for long hair and other extravagances." 

Witchcraft seems not to have flourished in this rich and verdant 
valley, particularly in Hampshire County, to the extent which prevailed 
in the earlier settlements on the rocky coast. In 1645 tne ^ rst ca ses 
of witchcraft in New England occurred at Springfield. During King 
Philip's War it lay dormant, naturally, under the more exciting events 


But at the close of the war it revived ; and a remarkable instance 
occurred at Hadley, when a Mr. Philip Smith was believed to be beset 
by the spells of a wretched old woman, who caused all sorts of myste- 
rious evils to assail him, finally causing his death. The old woman, 
however, was allowed to live on ; and there is no evidence of her ever 
having been brought to trial. About the time that Amherst was being 
laid out as one of the " precincts " of Hadley, fresh disasters awaited 
the valley dwellers, whose whole early progress seems to have been one 
long record of struggles with every sort of trial and discouragement. 

The brave settlement at Deerfield again became the scene of blood- 
shed and cruelty, when, at the beginning of Queen Anne's War, the 
French and Indians descended upon it, murdering and torturing on 
every hand. The famous Deerfield bell was taken during this campaign, 
and is believed to be still hanging in a little mission church on the St. 
Lawrence River. 

The long-suffering valley dwellers were alternately allowed to breathe 
freely for a time, and then made to suffer all the distress of repeated 
wars for an almost endless succession of years. But in 1760, permanent 
peace came about, upon the surrender of the Canadian province to 
Great Britain. 

For nearly one hundred and thirty years wars had racked Western 
Massachusetts to its foundations. 

Hardly an acre of the beautiful green Connecticut Valley, now full of 
peace and sunshine and homely sound of toil, but has known the pressure 
of flying feet, hard-pressed by savage pursuer, but has echoed to the 
terrible shouts of slayer and victim, or has drunk the blood of friends 
and foes. 

And yet even these events faded into the dim past before the on- 
coming excitements of the Revolution. 

Few events of particular significance at this crisis occurred in the 
Connecticut Valley itself, although its roll of minute-men is a long and 
honorable one. There were, however, many famous representatives of 
Toryism in the region. 

The only event of local interest in this general connection was the 
" Shays' Rebellion," practically an uprising owing to a petulant feeling 
on the part of the insurgents that they had not been getting their full 
dues in various ways. Headed by Daniel Shays of Shutesbury, they 
marched against Springfield and threatened the courts and the arsenal. 


There was little bloodshed, and the chief indirect effect of the rebellion 
was to hasten the adoption of a Federal government. 

A camping ground is still pointed out northeast of Amherst. 

From the close of this rebellion onward, life prospered in the valley. 
Amherst, and its neighboring towns, strongly disapproved, and publicly 
expressed its disapproval, of the War of 1812, being then, apparently, as 
ever, rather upon the conservative than the impetuous side of life. 

The primitive means of crossing the Connecticut River were, of course, 
ferries, for it does not appear certain that at any points between New 
Hampshire and Connecticut were available fords. In May, 1718, nine 
pounds were raised for a free ferry for a year. The navigation of the 
Connecticut had always been a difficult problem, owing to the falls at 
South Hadley and Montague. It was not until after the close of the 
Revolution, and of Shays' Rebellion, which had for twelve years occu- 
pied the minds of all in Western Massachusetts, that an enterprise for 
facilitating transportation sprang into new life. This was the building 
of canals around these falls. In 1792 this laudable enterprise was 
authorized by the legislature, and the names of those forming the 
corporation are still preserved. 

For many years the bridging of the Connecticut, or " Great River," 
was considered an impossible feat. It was attempted in 1792 at Green- 
field. A toll-bridge was established at Springfield about 1805. It was 
over twelve hundred feet long, and built with six imposing arches. Its 
opening to the public was an occasion of great rejoicing, processions, 
and speeches. 

The two travellers, whose glance backward over the long history of 
the fertile region they were passing so happily through had filled the 
whole golden afternoon, were now approaching the primitive and pic- 
turesque ferry at North Hadley. They hailed the sturdy boatman, who 
took them slowly across to the lovely Hatfield shore by hand. An 
idyllic little trip. 

In these August afternoons the sun begins to lean toward the horizon 
by six o'clock. A fresh coolness, even after the hottest days, springs 
into the air, and the two in the carriage passed herds of cows, soft- eyed 
and gentle, on their homeward way from pasture. 

As the level sun-rays swept across the meadows, the green of the rich 
grass was turned into velvety softness. The far, faint hills in the west 
came forth in a deep purple evening dress. While yet it seemed to be 


A Picturesque Ferry. 

summer, an unsuspected scarlet leaf of sumac glowed suddenly by the 
roadside, brilliant forerunner of that palpitating glory of color which 
holds high carnival here throughout a royal autumn. 

In this calm time how remotely misty seem those volcanic days when 
all was but a strife of upheaval, how impossible the stupendous proces- 
sion of prehistoric mammoths who left their huge footprints in the mud 
of that perpetual summer, how equally far away the numb clasp of the 
glacial silence, how more than strange the knowledge that the bed of 
a great lake makes now the fertile farm, the shady woodland, the radi- 
ant roadside ! 

Nearer, yet still remote, the war-cries and the tragedies of two hun- 
dred and fifty years ago, and the sturdy strength and inflexibility of 
purpose which built up and made possible the beautiful life we know 

As the cool twilight descends, and one dwelling after another is 
passed, the little home lights flash out cheerily into the still evening. 

The warm yellow glow in the west grows less ; one bright star, senti- 
nel outpost of a countless host, springs into life, and all the sweet valley 
sleeps under the sky. 




IN all New England there are few regions offering more delightful 
opportunities for riding and driving than the portion of the Connec- 
ticut Valley in which the town of Amherst lies. For miles around, 
easy country roads wind along the highlands and through the valleys, 
displaying lavishly all the beauty and grandeur of which indulgent Nature 
is capable. It is like a vast park, through which one may wander for 
months without exhausting the natural attractions, and be more deeply 
impressed each day by the wonderful variety. Not a few are the visitors 
who come to Amherst, and some of the neighboring towns, expressly to 
spend an outing in driving ; and none depart disappointed. 

With Amherst as a centre, there are long drives of a day or more to 
Pittsfield and Lenox, fashionable as summer and fall resorts ; to Worth- 
ington and Peru, on the lower Green Mountains, directly westward from 
Amherst, and twelve hundred and sixteen hundred feet above sea-level ; 
between Goshen and Ashfield both delightful places in themselves 
is a charming " Little Switzerland " ; and, further to the west, Williams- 
town and the Berkshire Hills are prominent ; Brattleboro' and Burlington 
are the pleasant objective points in Vermont, as are Monadnock in 
New Hampshire and Wachusett in Massachusetts. Indeed, the list is 
almost limitless. Of the shorter and more important drives for those who 
visit Amherst to become acquainted with the town and its surroundings, 
a few of the best have been selected for brief mention in this book. 

The ride to Mount Holyoke, eight miles, takes one to an outlook 
not surpassed in the world. The road runs southeasterly to the Middle 
Street of Hadley, four miles ; then south, along the Connecticut River, 
two and one-half miles, with many choice views ; then up the mountain- 
side through the veil of the old forest to the half-way house. The rest 
of the trip to the summit is made in a quaint little car holding four per- 
sons, and making the ascent under a covered way by means of a station- 
ary engine at the bottom. Athletes will prefer to climb the 522 steps 



which follow the side of the railway. Since the opening of the railroad in 

1854, there has never been an accident. The summit has a perpendicular 

elevation of 954 feet, and from it may be seen four States and forty towns, 

eight of which are ^^.^^^ 

in Connecticut. -""*"*' ^"^x. 

The panorama of ^ 

the winding river, \ 

fertile' valley, and 

rugged mountains, 

Mount Holyoke. 

as far as the eye can see, 
well nigh defies description. 
The drive home may be varied 
by crossing the Hockanum 
ferry at the foot of the moun- 
tain, and following the other 
side of the river to Northamp- 
ton, and thence to Amherst. 

" Old " Hadley, four miles, by the " old road," Amity Street, or by 
Northampton Street. The cemetery, the broad streets lined with elms, 
and the Elmwood House, are the objects of interest. The latter is on 
the site of the house where, two hundred years ago, Rev. Mr. Russell, the 
first minister of the town, hid the regicide judges, Goffe and Whalley, 
who had fled from England at the fall of Cromwell. From this hiding- 
place Goffe emerged to assume command of the settlers and drive off 
the attacking Indians in a memorable battle. 



The " Meadow City," as Northampton is known, is an eight-mile 
drive over a straight road. It is a thriving young city of fifteen thousand 
inhabitants, and many busy mills of almost national repute. It has been 
the home of such men as the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, Governor Caleb 
Strong, Rev. Timothy Dwight, and to-day numbers among its inhabitants 
the noted novelist George W. Cable, Judge D. VV. Bond, and President 
L. Clark Seelye. Northampton has many charming drives within its 
limits. Round Hill affords extensive views of river and meadow, and is 

The Russell Church and ElmWood House, m Hadley. 

of interest because of its connection with the historians Bancroft and 
Motley, and the "sweet singer," Jenny Lind. "Paradise" is a delightful 
bit of nature preserved from the ruthless real estate agent by kindly 
hands. One may reach it for a walk from Paradise road. Among the 
other objects of interest in the city are Smith College for young ladies, 
the Clark Institute for deaf and dumb, and the many manufactories. 
Wade, Warner & Co., the publishers of " Picturesque Hampshire," and 
projectors of similar works of other Western Massachusetts counties, 
have a large printing business here, and publish the Hampshire County 
Journal, a prominent weekly. 


Florence, three miles beyond Smith College, is the terminus of the 
horse-car line. A drive through it to Leeds, one and a half miles, and 
then along the stream to Haydenville and Williamsburg, brings one to 
the scene of the Mill River disaster of 1874, when 158 lives were 
destroyed in less than an hour. These towns are pleasant manufacturing 

Easthampton, eleven miles, by way of Northampton, is the seat of 
Williston Academy, a well-known preparatory school for boys. Return- 

A Glimpse of Smith College. 

ing by way of Mount Tom station and the Hockanum ferry lengthens 
the distance to fourteen miles. 

Mount Nonatuck, on the opposite side of the river from Mount 
Holyoke, is ten miles from Amherst, whether one crosses the Connecti- 
cut by the Hockanum ferry, or goes by way of Northampton, and the 
meadow road to the south. The ascent is by a carriage road, to the top, 
852 feet above sea-level, where there is a comfortable house. The view 
from the summit is scarcely less beautiful than from Mount Holyoke. 

Plainville ; two miles ; a little settlement in the town of Hadley ; 
Amity Street, first right after descending the hill. From Plainville 



thence by first left, around the base of Mount Warner, to North Hadley, 
and return by the northern side of the mountain, is a pleasant drive of 
nine miles. 

The Huntington Estate ; three and a half miles ; Amity Street 
directly west to the Connecticut River, then following the river north- 
ward. The 
first large 
house at 
the left is 
the sum- 
mer home 
of Bishop 

The Huntington Estate. 

F. D. Huntington, and with the adjoining estates is a fine example of 
the older Connecticut Valley homesteads. Following the river, the return 
may be made by North Hadley. 

Hatfield is five miles by way of North Hadley, and across the river 
by a picturesque ferry. This town was one of the earliest of those set- 
tled in this portion of the valley, and its history is filled with accounts 
of Indian wars. It is laid out in two long streets, lined from end to end 
with magnificent elms and pleasant estates. The return, if by way of 
Northampton, southward, is eleven miles ; or by Sunderland, northward, 
is fourteen miles, either way of great variety and charm. 

Whately and Whately Glen ; twelve miles ; is a delightful picnick- 
ing spot, and a haunt of artists and lovers of nature. North Hadley, the 
ferry to Hatfield, and northwesterly roads from Hatfield Centre. The 
return may be made by Sunderland, a mile or two further. 


Elm Street in Hatfield. 

North Amherst ; two miles ; North Pleasant Street. Return may be 
made by taking road to the west, to North Hadley, thence southeasterly 
to Amherst, the whole distance being from nine to twelve miles, accord- 
ing to variations ; or by the easterly road to North Amherst " city " ; 
whole distance five miles. North Amherst " city " is two miles from 
Amherst by way of Mount Pleasant Street. 

Mount Toby is eight miles due north through North Amherst and the 
Leverett plain, into wildness where bowlders, hugh forest trees, clearest 
springs and brooks surround an unequalled bit of rural loveliness, at 
the very base of the mountain. A climb of two miles by an easy moun- 
tain road brings one to the top. From the wooden tower, now de- 
stroyed by fire, could once be seen a wild sea of mountain tops and 
lands in more than eighty towns. 

It is seven miles to Shutesbury by way of Nor):h Amherst " city," and 
following along the side of the roaring waters of the upper Mill River. 
The road is picturesque, and at times shut in as if there were no outside 
world ; but from the crest, with a deep chasm farther east, one can look 
far over valley, hill, and range, and see Greylock in the west, Monad- 
nock in the north, and Wachusett in the east. 

Leverett, six miles, through North Amherst " city," and directly 
north, affords a fine series of views. A pleasant way is by way of North 
Amherst and Factory Hollow. 


Lock's Ponds, in North Leverett ; twelve miles ; a pleasant place to 

Montague, ten miles, through North Amherst, north through Leverett, 
passing Mount Toby, is a wide and picturesque drive. 

Sunderland, seven miles, through North Amherst, directly north. 

To reach South Deerfield by way of the Sunderland bridge, one 
must, go through North Amherst village in a northwesterly direction for 
ten miles, passing through the villages of North Amherst and Sunder- 
land. Sugar Loaf Mountain, around whose base the road winds, after 
crossing the bridge, is well worth ascending. The town of Old Deer- 
field, five miles farther, is of great historical interest, and in it are many 
memorials of the fierce French and Indian wars that more than once 
devastated it. The return drive may be made through the North Hatfield 
meadows, directly south, and across the river by the Hatfield ferry, and 
thence to Amherst. 

In Pelham the fishing-rod factory of the Montague City Rod Com- 
pany is an interesting place to visit. It is about two miles directly east 
from Main Street. This industry was founded in the year 1860 by 
H. Gray & Son, and was the first factory known in which fishing-rods 
were made by machinery. The founders carried on a constantly increas- 
ing business for fourteen years, and in 1874 sold out to J. G. Ward & Co. 

Looking toward North Amherst. 

This firm continued until 1880, when the business passed into the hands 
of Bartlett Brothers. The senior member of this firm, L. L. Bartlett, 
withdrew in 1883, and E. P. Bartlett, sole proprietor during the next six 
years, greatly enlarged the plant, and trebled the amount of business. 

4 o 


In 1889 the business combined with the Montague City Rod Company. 
This company now employs at this factory a full force of fifty hands, 
and has a constantly increasing business. Their annual output is about 
six thousand fishing-rods of all grades, ranging from the boys' cheap rod 
to the finest German silver mounted split bamboo rods. The catalogue 
contains descriptions of the two hundred different styles of fishing-rods 
manufactured. The stock used is the native ash, maple, and birch ; also 
lancewood and greenheart wood imported from the West Indies, and bam- 
boo poles from Calcutta. Mr. E. P. Bartlett, who is now in charge at this 

The Fishing-Rod Factory. 

factory, has been connected with the business ever since it started, and 
as either part or sole owner during the last seventeen years. It is owing 
in a large measure to his energy and business capacity that the business 
has grown and developed to its present large volume. His enterprise 
has aided very materially in the growth of the manufacturing interest of 
Amherst. The Montague City Rod Company has another large factory 
for fishing-rods at Montague City. The officers of the company are : 
President, L. L. Bartlett of Montague City; treasurer, C. W. Hazelton 
of Turner's Falls. E. P. Bartlett is one of the directors of the company, 
and superintendent of the factory at Pelham. Amherst is the post-office 
address of this branch of the firm. 


West Pelham church ; four miles ; and thence southward, behind 
the first mountain range following a mad brook down to Pansy Park, is a 
pleasant drive. The way is about fifteen miles if the return to Amherst 
is by going southeasterly to the Bay road, and thence through South 

The tower on Mount Lincoln is six miles due east to the West 
Pelham meeting-house, and thence south, clinging to the left-hand roads 

The Tower on Mount Lincoln. 

with guide-boards. The roads follow a deep chasm at the left, a private 
graveyard at the right, the mountain woods, and along the mountain top 
to the summit. The tower is twelve hundred feet above the sea-level, 
the surrounding valleys, and no other point gives a clearer idea of the 
Connecticut Valley as a whole. As the position is higher than Mounts 
Holyoke and Tom and the Sugar Loaves, one may look directly across 
them to the distant and loftier continuations of the Green Mountains. 

Pratt's Corner ; four to six miles, according to the variations ; East 
Street, turning north, and taking the first road to the northeast. This 
way is along the valley of the Pelham hills, and full of most charming 


Pansy Park, the flower farm and seed establishment of L. W. Goodell, 
is situated about four miles from Amherst, upon the main road to Belcher- 
town, and about a mile this side of the railroad station, which takes 
its name from this place. Here in the summer time may be seen 
more than two thousand varieties of flowering plants, including pansies, 
asters, pinks, petunias, and many others, being grown by the acre for 
the seed. Especially during the months of August and September, all 
these make a gorgeous display of floral beauty, which attracts thousands 
of visitors annually from far and near. One of the most attractive 
features of the place is the aquatic garden and artificial pond, con- 

A Flower Field at Pansy Park. 

taining one of the largest collections of water-plants grown in the open 
air in America. Among other rarities in this collection are several 
varieties of the Japanese and sacred Egyptian lotus, and about twenty 
varieties of water-lilies from various parts of the world, including the 
magnificent blue and red lilies from Zanzibar. The cultivation of the 
latter has until recently been confined to the city parks and the grounds 
of the wealthy, on account of the high price of the plants ; but 
Mr. Goodell has shown that they can be as easily grown from the 
seed as the common annuals, and made to flower in tubs, and in this 
way they are now being grown from seed he has distributed all over 
the country. The very rare Victoria Regia, from the river Amazon, 
the largest water-lily in the world, with leaves from four to six feet 


across, was flowered at Pansy Park in the summer of 1890 without 
artificial heat, the first time this has ever been accomplished in an open 
pond. The taste for the cultivation of aquatic plants increased so 
rapidly that the following season Mr. Goodell constructed ponds to 
cover several acres, and is cultivating this class of plants on a larger 
scale than has ever before been attempted. In addition to the seeds 

The First Victoria Regia grown without Artificial Heat. 

grown upon the farm, large quantities are imported from the growers 
of England, Germany, and France, and some varieties that require a 
long season to mature are grown on contract in the Southern States. 
A catalogue and price list is published annually in January by Mr. 
Goodell, and thousands of them sent out. The seeds are put up in 
hundreds of thousands of packets, and go by mail or express to 
customers in all parts of the country, and in fact all over the globe, 
as orders are received from Europe, the East and the West Indies, 
Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and other foreign lands. Mr. GoodelPs 
success in a business started under discouraging circumstances, and 


in competition with old established firms, is remarkable. He began 
during the Centennial year, with a capital of only $25, on a poor, 
run-down farm, which was mortgaged and otherwise deeply in debt. 
The old homestead, which has been in the Goodell family for over a 
century, was a few years ago one of the most neglected and unsightly 
in town, and would in the ordinary course of events have become one 
of the much-talked-of " abandoned farms." It is now a most attractive 
place, and well worth a long journey to visit. The year Mr. Goodell 
began business, he had less than two hundred customers, while now there 
are over fifty thousand. From two hundred to five hundred orders are 
received daily during the selling season in the winter and spring months. 
Six years ago, land more suitable for the cultivation of the flowers being 
needed, Mr. Goodell bought the two estates adjoining his own, where most 
of the growing has been done. Pansies being one of the leading special- 
ties, the distinctive name of " Pansy Park " was then given to the place. 
Belchertown ; ten miles ; a pleasant village on the hills at the 
southeast. The road is direct after passing through the East Amherst 
T _______ , ........ _______ ___________ _________ _____ ......... village and by the 

Agricultural Fair 
grounds. Good 
hotel accommoda- 
tions, with several 
summer residences 
and a handsome 
library building, 
add to the natural 
attractiveness of 
the place. A half 

a mile Ond the 

The Pond in Belchertown. 

Pansy Park Station 

of the Massachusetts Central Railroad, the road passes the site of the 
birthplace of Dr. J. G. Holland, the well-remembered author. In the 
grove, at the right, just before crossing the railroad at Pansy Park Station, 
there was formerly a school-house in which Henry Ward Beecher, when 
a student at Amherst College, preached his first sermon. Beautiful 
roads and picnic grounds about the ponds abound between Amherst 
and Belchertown. The drive from Belchertown to Enfield offers land 
views of more than ordinary loveliness. 

Page 45. 




South Amherst; four miles; South Pleasant Street, following the 
left-hand road after ascending the hill beyond Mill River. 

The Old Bay Road ; four miles ; the right-hand road after ascending 
the hill beyond Mill River, once the southern boundary of the town. 
It runs along the foot of the Holyoke range, was first a bridle-path, and 
later a part of the stage route between Northampton, Hadley, Brookfield, 
and Boston. The "Bay Path" has been made memorable by Dr. 
Holland. The road commands an immense variety of landscape. 

Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley. 

The Notch ; five miles ; to the Bay road, thence over the Holyoke 
Mountain range. This cut was the first outlet of the great lake which 
once spread over this portion of the Connecticut Valley. 

South Hadley and Granby, each eight miles, are beyond the Notch. 
The former place is the seat of the Mount Holyoke College for young 
ladies, a well-known educational institution. Returning home by the 
road around the base of Mount Holyoke will give variety, and add only 
three miles to the distance. By crossing Smith's Ferry in South Hadley, 
the only ferry on the river which is operated by the force of the current, 
and following the river to Northampton, the drive will be lengthened by 
five miles. Granby is a small town, in early times a portion of Hadley. 




THE town of Amherst occupies a position a little east of the centre 
of Hampshire County, which was established by act of the General 
Court, May 7, 1662. The original county included the present 
Berkshire County, set off in 1761 ; Franklin County, set off in 1811 ; 
and Hampden County, set off in 1812. There is but one city in Hamp- 
shire County, Northampton, and of the twenty- two towns, Amherst is 
the second in point of population. The total population of the county, 
according to the national census of 1890, was 51,859. 

Adjoining Amherst are : Sunderland and Leverett, in Franklin County, 
on the north; Shutesbury, in Franklin County, Pelham, and Belcher- 
town, on the east ; Granby, on the south ; and Hadley, on the west. 
On two sides, nature has provided the town sharp boundary lines in the 
ranges of the Pelham hills and Holyoke mountains. 

Between these and the highlands, where the main village lies, inter- 
vene broad valleys, which stretch away westward, to the banks of the 
peaceful river. Several minor streams traverse the town in their jour- 
ney to the Connecticut, here and there broadening into graceful ponds, 
which never fail to attract the migrating water-fowl in spring and fall, 
affording many a good shot to the chance sportsman. The woods 
and the brooks as well furnish in their seasons similar amusement, 
although the latter are fast becoming desolated. The whirr of the 
partridge, the chatter of the squirrel, and the bobbing white tail of 
the rabbit, frequently startle the wandering scholar who loves to give 
himself to solitude and communion with nature. Sometimes a very 
shrewd hunter is permitted to hear and see these things, if he is careful 
to be unarmed. 

The area of Amherst is about twenty-eight and three-quarters square 
miles, and its villages are Amherst, North Amherst, North Amherst 
" city," East Amherst, or East Street, and South Amherst 

Page 49. 

1. Amity Street. 

2. Lincoln Avenue. 

3. Prospect Street. 


4. North Pleasant Street. 

5. Main Street. 

6. Spring Street. 

7. College Street. 

8. South Pleasant Street. 

9. Northampton Street. 


The distances from the centre to the surrounding villages are : 
North Amherst and the "city," two miles; East Amherst, one mile; 
South Amherst, four miles. North Amherst " city " is a mile eastward 
from North Amherst. 

The roads and streets that connect these villages with each other and 
with the neighboring towns are, in the main, the smoothest and most 
comfortable of country thoroughfares. Within the limits of constant 
and heavy travel they are laid and kept in repair with a thoroughness 
seldom seen in towns of equal size. Their entire length is about seventy- 
five miles. 

The New London Northern Railroad has stations at South Amherst, 
Amherst, and North Amherst " city." The distance from New London, 
Conn., where the road connects with the New York, Providence, and 
Boston and the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroads, and 
with the steamer for New York, to Amherst is 85 miles ; from Williman- 
tic, connecting with the New York and New England road, 56 miles; 
from Palmer, connecting with the Boston and Albany, 20 miles ; from 
Belchertown, connecting with the Massachusetts Central, 10 miles; 
from Brattleboro, connecting with the Connecticut River, and the 
Central Vermont, 36 miles; and from Miller's Falls, connecting with 
the Fitchburg, 15 miles. 

The Massachusetts Central Railroad was extended through Amherst 
in 1888, and has stations at South Amherst and Amherst. Boston is 96 
miles distant ; Oakdale, where connections are made with the Worcester 
and Nashua Railroad, 55 miles ; Belchertown, connecting with the New 
London Northern, 9 miles ; and Northampton, connecting with the 
Connecticut River and the New York, New Haven and Hartford roads, 
8 miles. 

In politics, Amherst is usually found within the Republican fold. Its 
local elections are not carried on strongly marked political lines, but 
they are frequently more exciting than the State or national contests. 
There are about one thousand voters. 

A few statistics will give the practical reader an idea of the material 
conditions of the town. The tax rate for the year 1890 was $15.75 on 
every $1000, and during the four years previous averaged $15.50. In 
comparing this rate with that of other towns, the discount of ten per 
cent allowed in return for early payments must be taken into consid- 


Law and order have an almost undisputed sway over Amherst, and 
the guardians of the peace are limited to a dozen constables and one 
night patrolman. The grounds of the two colleges are protected by 
specially appointed watchmen. The town lock-up is with rare excep- 
tions desolate of inmates. It frequently shelters a weary tramp from 
the cold, but offenders against the law, scarcely at the rate of a half- 
dozen a year. 

The fire department consists of two hose companies and a hook and 
ladder company, all under the charge of a board of twelve engineers 
appointed by the selectmen. In 1891 thirty-eight men comprised the 
working force of firemen. Hydrants are located at convenient intervals 
in the thickly settled portions of the town, and the force of the water 
supply is such that the hand-engine is seldom called into service. In 
the past four years, since 1887, the average number of fires has been 

The main village of Amherst is lighted by gas and electricity. 

A water system was introduced by a private company in 1881, supply- 
ing all the main portions of the town. The source of the supply is 
Amethyst Brook, four miles distant, in Pelham, and chemical examina- 
tion has shown the water to be of excellent purity. 

Shortly after the introduction of water, a sewerage system was planned 
by the several influential citizens, and put in at the expense of benefit- 
ing abutters. It now consists of three divisions emptying into running 
brooks in different parts of the village, and the service is sufficient for 
the accommodation of all living in this portion of the town. 

One of the most attractive features of the village of Amherst is the 
Common, a long stretch of greensward reaching from the Amherst Col- 
lege buildings to the business blocks. Previous to 1880 it was an 
unsightly swamp, and was changed to its present good condition through 
the efforts of William A. Dickinson, Esq. The expenses were defrayed 
by private subscription, and at present it is largely cared for by the 
local improvement society. 

The national census of 1890 placed the population of Amherst at 
4512, an increase of 214 in ten years. As augmenting the social and 
business life of the town, the 500 students attending the two colleges 
may well be added to this number. The actual growth of the town may 
be readily seen from these census figures: In 1776 there were 915 
inhabitants; 1790, 1233; 1800, 1358; 1810, 1469; 1820, 1917; 1830, 


2631; 1840, 2550; 1850, 3057; i860, 3206; 1870, 4035; 1880, 

The elevated situation, the pure air from the hills, the excellent water 
supply, and the freedom of a country life, combined with the material 
comforts of modern homes, make Amherst one of the healthiest and most 
cheerful of the towns of Western Massachusetts. The deaths average 
about sixty-five in a year, and the proportion of sickness is small. 

Amherst exults in still retaining that ancient emblem of pure democ- 
racy, the town-meeting, and many are the patriotic words, sage counsels, 
and, it must be confessed, now and then, bits of oratorical filling, that 
have echoed in the ears of the oldest inhabitants at these assemblages 
of the people. The college boys have always been zealous in their 
attendance upon town-meetings, and there is more than one legend 
among them of the absurdities that were gravely legislated upon in the 
mythical times when students are said to have been allowed to cast their 
votes on important town matters. If such times ever did exist, no one 
can clearly remember them, although of course this casts no doubt upon 
the truth of these circulating stories. The annual meeting, when officers 
are elected and appropriations made, occurs on the first Monday in 

The yearly expenditures of the town reach about $42,000. In 1890 
they were $i 10,947, which included the cost of the new town hall. The 
public debt in that year was $142,000. The total valuation of taxable 
property was $3,290,128. About $2,000,000 is untaxable. The taxable 
personal property amounted to $931,314, and real estate $2,358,814. 

The educational interests of Amherst are well provided for in the 
annual appropriations. The schools in 1891 were eleven in number, 
with twenty-one regular teachers. The expenditures for schools in the 
year 1890-91 were $11,499, or $ X 4 f r everv pupil. The school build- 
ings and land are valued at about $60,000. Amherst schools rank well 
among those of the State. One of the three committeemen is usually 
the superintendent. 

The village of Amherst is the business centre of the town. Three 
short brick blocks, wherein are located the majority of the stores of the 
town, radiate from the Amherst House, a hostelry bearing an enviable 
reputation throughout the State. For many years this site has been 
occupied by the hotel of the town. The original building was burned, 
with the rest of the blocks in Merchants' Row, in 1879. The present 


house was built directly after the fire, and is owned by the Conkey 
heirs. Ordinarily, one hundred guests may be accommodated, and at 
such occasions as the commencement of the colleges, special arrange- 
ments nearly double this capacity. Lorenzo Chase has been the pro- 
prietor since 1890. Connected with the hotel, T. L. Paige has a finely 
equipped livery stable. 

About this end of the village Common are clustered the post-office, 
town hall, banks, newspaper office, and stores. At the further end rises 
College Hill, with its group of college buildings. 

The village post-office and the Amherst Savings Bank are located in 
the block next the hotel. The employees of the post-office handle 
about 1,000,000 letters and 580,000 papers in a single year, and the 
cash receipts are never far from $10,000 a year. 

The Savings Bank was incorporated April 15, 1864, and began busi- 
ness the 2d of January following. The amount of deposits, January i, 
1891, was $1,359,419. E. F. Cook was then president. 

The comfortable quarters of the Amherst Club are in the next block, 
which belongs to B. H. Williams. This club was organized in 1891 by 
the young business men of the town, and it has handsomely appointed 
reception, reading, and billiard rooms. Herbert T. Cowles was the first 

The Amherst National Bank, in Hunt's Block, was organized in Janu- 
ary, 1864, largely through the influence of the late Leonard M. Hills, 
who became its first president. At Mr. Hills' death, L. D. Hills suc- 
ceeded to the office, which he has since held. The capital of the bank 
is $150,000. 

The Baptist church stood for many years next to Hunt's Block. The 
society was organized as a branch of the New Salem and Prescott 
church, November 8, 1827, later becoming a branch of the church at 
Northampton, and recognized as an independent organization on August 
3, 1832. This building was erected in 1855. The pastor in 1891 was 
Rev. J. B. Child. 

Across the Common, on the corner of Spring Street, is the Grace 
Episcopal church, a handsome gray-stone structure, with a curious 
finger-like spire at one corner of the tower. The Right Reverend F. D. 
Huntington, Bishop of Central New York, organized the society, with 
thirty-seven members, September 12, 1864. Rev. S. P. Parker, D.D., 
was installed as the first pastor, January n, 1865, and until March of 


the year following, services were held in the hall of the old Amherst 
Academy building, then standing on the present site of the Amity Street 
Grammar School. The church building was consecrated July 17, 1866 : 
it cost $40,000, and has a seating capacity of five hundred. At present 
there is a generous active membership, and since 1888 the Rev. William 
J. Tilley has been the rector. 

The town hall is a picturesque building of brick, red sandstone, and 
granite. It was erected by the town in 1889 at a cost of $58,000, H. S. 
McKay of Boston being the designer. In addition to a handsome hall, 
seating eight hundred and fifty persons, there are rooms for the town 
officers, the district court, the town library, and several business men. 

In the rear of this hall, Company K, 2d Regiment, M. V. M., has a 
large armory, built by the town in 1890 and rented to the State. The 
company was organized November 19, 1887, and in 1891 had full ranks 
with E. G. Thayer, captain ; W. A. Thayer, ist lieutenant ; F. A. Bard- 
well, 2d lieutenant. W. G. Towne was the first captain. 

In the rear of the American House Block, opposite, is the office of 
the Amherst Record, a thriving weekly, boasting its forty-eighth volume. 
It first appeared in 1844 under the name of the Hampshire and Frank- 
lin Express, Samuel C. Nash being editor. In 1865 it became the Hamp- 
shire Express, and three years later, the Amherst Record. The Record 
is published every Wednesday afternoon, and its editors, Carpenter & 
Morehouse, are the proprietors of a large job and book printing business. 

Kellogg's Block, at this end of the Phoenix Row, stands upon the site 
of the home of Noah Webster, who resided in Amherst from 1812 to 
1822. The house was destroyed by fire in 1838. 

Masonic Hall, in Cook's Block, is the headquarters of the Pacific 
Lodge of Masons, the E. M. Stanton Post 147, of the Grand Army, and 
the Women's Relief Corps. 

It is a peculiarity of the village, that the chief streets radiate in every 
direction from the Common. The most satisfactory results, therefore, 
of an attempt to see whatever there is of interest, will be obtained by 
taking the Common as a starting-place for a walk through each one. 
They are not in any case thickly populated for more than a quarter of 
a mile from the Common, and a ramble about them, while not occupy- 
ing a long time, will well repay an admirer of country scenery, in the 
sight of the many comfortable homes, for Amherst is truly a village 
of homes, and now and then the distant landscapes of rare beauty. 


From the side of the Amherst House, Amity Street, the " old road " 
to Hadley, extends directly westward to the town boundary, Plain- 
ville, and the Connecticut River. It is the modern survivor of one 
of the original roads of the town, laid out with a width of forty rods in 

The building opposite is a veritable landmark. When it was but one 
story high, it contained the town's first post-office, which was removed 
from East Amherst about 1820. The first postmaster sold out, after 
being a few years in this place, to one Jared White, who paid $100 
for the business, and continued it in the same location. The building 
is now owned by Frank P. Wood, who opened it as Wood's Hotel in 
1882. It is best known to the college boys as "Frank's," and the 
warm-hearted proprietor has had a permanent position in the usually 
fickle affections of the boys, ever since he first demonstrated to them 
his skill as a cook and his kindness as a friend. More than one class 
and club has celebrated their friendship for the man and the place in 
their publications, and many a delectable game bird, rare-bit, or lobster 
have they enjoyed during the days when the restaurant was open. 
" Frank" entered private life in 1889, but as a caterer he is still in great 
demand. His rooms are rented to college students. 

The Grammar School building opposite stands upon the site of 
Amherst Academy, in its day the most prominent educational institu- 
tion in this part of the State, and very influential in the founding of 
Amherst College. Opened in December, 1814, the incorporators, when 
the charter was granted two years later, included all the leading citizens 
of the town, which was then about one-fourth its present population. 
For a dozen years both sexes were admitted to the Academy. A poor 
student preparing for the ministry was required to pay no tuition, and 
very frequently found kind people who gladly gave him his board. The 
number of pupils attending the Academy at one time amounted to ninety 
of each sex. After young ladies had been excluded, the number varied 
between seventy-five and one hundred. Connected with the Academy as 
a pupil was Mary Lyon, the founder of Mount Holyoke College at South 
Hadley. Among the teachers, since become prominent, was the venera- 
ble Professor William S. Tyler of Amherst College. The Academy build- 
ing was a three-story brick structure, and being considered unsafe, was 
taken down in 1868 to make way for the present school-house. 

The old homestead of Judge Strong, once the adjutant-general of 

Page 61. 



Massachusetts, stands some distance back from the street. It is now 
owned by Mrs. S. E. Emerson. 

At the opposite corner of North Pleasant Street is Mrs. R. G. Williams' 
Select Family School. The success of this institution and the experience 
of its teachers, who are Mrs. Williams, the Rev. Mr. Williams, and assist- 
ants, insure the most faithful and earnest instruction to the pupils. 

Pleasantly situated on South Prospect Street, near Amity, is " The 
Terrace," Mrs. W. D. Herrick's Home School for backward and delicate 
children. Mrs. Herrick receives into her family a limited number of 
children, who, from disease or some untoward circumstance, are unfitted 
for the ordinary school. To these she devotes herself, faithfully aided 
by efficient and skilled teachers, who give to each pupil that care 
and training which the mental and physical peculiarities demand. The 
Home stands upon high ground, affording a commanding view of the 
beautiful Connecticut Valley and the Holyoke Mountain range, and it 
is perfect in its sanitary appointments. A fine lawn and ample play- 
grounds afford abundant opportunity for out-of-door exercise and recrea- 
tion. The school has been established a number of years, and is favored 
with the confidence and patronage of the best physicians and educators 
of the country. 

Among the other residences on Amity Street are those of Professor E. 
P. Crowell r Dean of Amherst College ; E. B. Marsh, registrar of Amherst 
College ; Professor Charles Wellington, Dr. Charles A. Goessmann, Pro- 
fessor G. F. Mills, all of the Agricultural College, and the summer home of 
Hiram Heaton of New York. President H. H. Goodell of the Agricul- 
tural College lives on Sunset Avenue, near Amity. On Lincoln Avenue, 
leading directly to the Agricultural College, is one of the finest views in 
the town. On this street is the house of Mrs. C. D. Adams. 

That portion of Pleasant Street which extends northward from the 
hotel is most aptly named. For the distance of a quarter of a mile, 
great straight-trunked elms line each side of the road, almost uniting 
their branches overhead, and sheltering in the warm summer time many 
a tuneful katydid. The residences on the left side of the street are 
those of E. D. Bangs, the treasurer of the Savings Bank ; the Conkey 
Mansion, now the parish home of St. Bridget's church, and occupied 
by the pastor, Rev. J. B. Drennan ; the home of Levi Cowles, standing 
a generous distance back from the street ; and the dwelling of George 
Cutler. On the other side, live W. H. Long, William Kellogg, whose 

6 4 


house is on land bought from Noah Webster, and Dr. O. F. Bigelow. 
The Universalist Society, organized November, 1887, has a site for a 
church building here. The services are held in Masonic Hall, pending 
the erection of the church, and the Rev. J. H. Holden is pastor. 

The village cemetery includes within its limits the graveyard that was 
laid out by the town of Hadley in 1830. 

On the road toward the Agricultural College is the St. Bridget's 
Roman Catholic church, built in 1871. Previous to that time the 

North Pleasant Street. 

Catholics of the town held their meetings in Palmer's Block, on the site 
of which the town hall now stands. Until 1872 the pastors came from 
Northampton, but in that year Rev. Francis Brennan was installed. The 
pastor since 1887, Rev. J. B. Drennan, is also pastor of the Hadley 

A short distance beyond is the residence of H. D. Fearing, manu- 
facturer of straw hats. 

Leaving Pleasant Street here, it will be interesting to return to Mount 
Pleasant Street, which extends over the hills to North Amherst " city." 
A short distance from the fork of the two roads is Wildwood Cemetery, 
a most beautiful spot, bought and laid out in 1888 by a private cor- 


About a mile from the village, on the left of the road, is the Mount 
Pleasant House, of which Mrs. W. F. Bullman is the proprietor. The 
estate was formerly the property of Colonel W. S. Clark, president of the 
Agricultural College, and cost him nearly $40,000. The house stands 
upon the highest part of the hill, nearly four hundred feet above sea- 
level, and commands views of the Connecticut Valley that are limited 
only by the range of one's vision. It was after long travelling in 
foreign countries that Henry Ward Beecher stood here looking off 

upon the wide landscape, and said. " I have seen nothing finer in the 
world," a remark that has been repeated often by visitors of equal 
prominence. The extensive grounds of the estate, with its spacious 
lawns and shaded walks, are always models of the gardener's art. 

Returning to the village square, a walk to the American House brings 
one to the corner of Lessey Street. The first two estates, on the left, 
belong to E. F. Cook, the president of the Savings Bank. The second 
of these is occupied by Mr. Cook, and the first by Lieutenant L. W. 
Cornish, military instructor at the Agricultural College. For many years, 
the Northampton and Amherst stages, owned by Mr. Cook, made their 


two daily trips from the stables in the rear of this house. At the com- 
pletion of the railroad they were discontinued. The place is of historical 
interest, as it includes an orchard planted by Noah Webster. 

Upon Oak Grove Hill, over which Lessey Street leads, are the resi- 
dences of Rev. W. S. Tyler, D.D., of Amherst College, and his son, 
Professor J. M. Tyler. The house of Dr. Tyler was the birthplace and 
youthful home of Helen Hunt Jackson, whose writings, under the nom- 
de-plu-me " H. H.," still charm many readers. 

The Chapter houses of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity are on the 
summit of the hill. The " Oak Grove School " for young ladies occupies 
the colonial mansion, formerly the residence of J. Howard Sweetser of 
New York, on the opposite side of the street. This school was founded 
in 1885, and is conducted by Miss V. W. Buffam, a graduate of Welles- 
ley College, assisted by an able corps of instructors. The aim of the 
school is to train up girls with healthy bodies, sound minds, and refined 
manners. The facilities can hardly be excelled. The boarding pupils 
enjoy a well-kept home in a charming situation. Preparation is here 
made for college, several of the best institutions in the State accepting 
the certificates of the school in place of regular examinations for admis- 

Main Street is a well-travelled thoroughfare along which one may look 
from the verandas of the Amherst House. It crosses New London 
Northern Railroad near the station, and extends through East Amherst 
to Pelham. 

The meeting-house of the First Congregational Society, on the right 
side of the street, was dedicated September 23, 1868, the corner-stone 
having been laid September 2ist of the previous year. The society dates 
back to the earliest settlement of the town, when there was no distinction 
between the religious and political body. The business of the parish 
was transacted in public meeting, and the necessary funds for its sup- 
port were raised by taxation, together with those needed for highways 
and the other usual expenses of a town. The first meeting-house was 
built about 1840, upon the site of the present college Observatory. It 
was a severely plain structure without and within. Around the sides 
were ranged the pews, the men sitting on one side and the women on 
the other. The first minister was Rev. David Parsons. In 1788 a 
meeting-house of a more elaborate character was erected upon the same 
site, and three years after, private individuals contributed the money for 


the belfry. The opening of the College was followed by a need for bet- 
ter accommodations, and the third building, the present College Hall, was 
erected in 1829. This cost $6500, and originally had a portico in front 
supported by huge pillars. When it was finished, the society decided 
that the town should hold no meetings in it, and it was after it had 
been occupied some years that the people became worldly enough to 
allow stoves, kerosene lights, and an organ to be admitted. The growth 

Main Street. 

of the society since it has occupied the present building has been steady. 
It has now the largest membership in the town, excepting only the col- 
lege church. The building cost $75,000. In the spring of 1890 the 
church celebrated its one hundred and fiftieth anniversary. Until July, 
1891, Rev. G. S. Dickerman was pastor. 

The residence of William A. Dickinson, Esq., treasurer of Amherst 
College, is situated upon the opposite side of the street. The estate 
adjoining has long been in the possession of the Dickinson family, and 
is now the home of Miss Lavinia Dickinson, whose sister, Emily Dick- 
inson, left, at her death, the wonderful poems which have since been 


published and widely read. This house was the first brick building in 

The residence of the late Professor R. H. Mather is at the right. 
During the first year of his administration, President Gates occupied the 

Further down the street, and standing some distance back, are the 
residences of Leonard D. Hills, president of the National Bank, and of 
Henry F. Hills, president of the Hills Company, manufacturers of straw 

Beyond the railroad, on the same street, is the church building of the 
Methodist Episcopal Society, first organized in 1868, with Rev. E. F. 
Pitcher, pastor, and reorganized in 1875, under Rev. S. L. Rogers. 
The present building was erected in 1879. In I ^ > 9 1 Rev. S. A. Bragg 
was the pastor. 

The residence of S. A. Stevens is on the same side, near the East 

Grouped near the railroad station of the New London Northern road 
are the only manufactories of the village. The wooden buildings of The 
Hills Company are devoted to the manufacturing of straw goods. In 
the season closing May, 1891, this company made 350,000 dozen straw 
hats. H. D. Fearing & Co. occupy the brick building. Each year 
they turn out a large line of the finer grades of straw hats. 

Spring Street, extending eastward from the centre of the village 
Common, has several pleasant residences, among them that of Professor 
D. P. Todd of Amherst College. The High School building, built about 
1860, is here. 

College Street is parallel with Spring Street. On the corner of the 
Common is the Beta Theta Pi House, and beyond, the Chi Phi and 
the Phi Delta Theta houses. The residences here include those of 
Dr. H. H. Seelye, assistant in the physical culture department of the 
Amherst College ; Mrs. Laurens P. Hickok, widow of the late Dr. 
Hickok, whose works on philosophy perpetuate his name ; Ex- President 
Julius H. Seelye, whose connection with Amherst College dates from 
1855 Professor W. L. Montague, of Amherst College, and the director 
of the Summer School of Languages ; Dr. Edward Hitchcock, son of 
the president of Amherst College of that name ; Mrs. A. I. Cooper ; 
and Dr. T. P. Field. 

On South Pleasant Street, beyond College Hill, are the Delta Upsilon 



House and the residence of Mrs. Edward Tuckerman. Beyond the 
railroad bridge is the home of the Misses Snell, sisters of the late Pro- 
fessor E. S. Snell of Amherst College. Ever since the death of Professor 
Snell, the weather statistics of the College have been kept and published 
from this house. 

A short distance from here, on Snell Street, is the residence of Pro- 
fessor E. P. Harris of Amherst College. 

Mill Valley. 

At Mill Valley, a mile from the village, on South Pleasant Street, is a 
picturesque group of comfortable farmhouses. 

Northampton Street is the direct road to Northampton. On the 
corner opposite College Hall is the Psi Upsilon House, and next to it 
is the Chi Psi Lodge. Still further from the Common are the Theta 
Delta Chi House and the homes of Professor Henry Gibbons, Professor 
H. H. Neill of Amherst College, O. D. Hunt, a prominent merchant, 
and Professor B. K. Emerson, Professor A. D. Morse, and Dr. C. A. 
Tuttle of Amherst College. 

At the corner of Parsons Street, the first left, is the Zion's Congrega- 
tional church, established and supported by the students of Amherst 


College. The building was erected in 1868, and in 1891 Rev. Milton 
Waldo was the pastor. 

On Lincoln Street, near the Theta Delta Chi House, is the home of 
Rev. G. S. Burroughs, pastor of Amherst College. 

Dr. Marshall Henshaw and Dr. H. N. Morse live on Orchard Street. 
On this street and on Northampton Street are entrances to the athletic 
field of Amherst College. 

North Amherst. The road from Amherst follows along the rich 
highlands, descending a short hill or two, and rising again as it nears the 
village. Here everything clusters about a pleasant square, the stately 
white church, a brick school, stores, and neat dwellings. Just beyond 
the settlement the historic Mill River, once the northern boundary of 
the town, flows westward to the Connecticut. North Amherst " city " 
is a mile to the east, and Factory Hollow, a diminutive but active manu- 
facturing settlement, is a short distance to the north. 

The church building of the North Congregational Society was built 
in 1826. It contains a fine organ, the gift of Mrs. G. E. Fisher. The 
society was organized November 15, 1826. Rev. George H. Johnson 
was the pastor in 1891. 

The school building is occupied by a primary and a grammar school. 
The North Amherst Library Association has a collection of nearly two 
thousand volumes for public use in this building. 

The post-office was established about 1839. The nearest railroad 
station is at the " City." 

Among the residences here are those of Henry W. Haskins, several 
years one of the selectmen of the town, Edmund Hobart, and Jonathan 
Cowles, whose farm is one of the largest in the State. 

North Amherst "City" is not so large as its name would lead one 
to believe. The confiding visitor expects something more than the 
single street, with its railroad station, store, church, and school-house. 
Beside some cheerful houses, and a factory or two, that is all there is. 
The village cemetery is a short distance on the road to Amherst. 

The Methodist Society, whose little meeting-house stands near the 
railroad track, was not regularly organized until March 9, 1849, four 
years after the dedication of the building. Extensive repairs were 
made upon the house in 1876. The pastor in 1891 was Rev. S. A. 

There is no post-office at the " City " ; all the mail goes to North 


Amherst, or is opened informally at the railroad station by the post- 
master, who drives over for it. 

The little Queen Anne school-house was built in 1890. Among the 
residences is that of A. R. Cushman, whose leather-board mills are some 
distance beyond the centre of the village. 

East Amherst, or " East Street," as it is locally and perhaps better 
known, is a mile eastward from the main village, Amherst. Like that 
place, it is built around a grassy remnant of one of the old wide roads, 
the east street, laid out in 1704. This village in the early part of the 
century was the active centre of the town. As late as the year 1825, 
town-meetings were held in the church which then stood at the head of 
the Common, where the iron water trough now is. The post-office is a 
branch of that at Amherst. 

The Second Congregational church was built in 1889, the first meet- 
ing-house of the society having been erected in 1790. Since 1886 Rev. 
F. J. Fairbanks has been pastor. 

The present beautiful Common was laid out by the enterprise of sev- 
eral public-spirited citizens, among them Charles O. Parmenter, at one 
time representative to the General Court. 

East Amherst had the first post-office of the town. It was in the 
house now occupied by Willard M. Kellogg, on East Street, some dis- 
tance north of the village store, and was opened about the year 1815, 
Rufus Kellogg being postmaster. The mails arrived only once a week 
at those times, and it is within the memory of Mr. Willard Kellogg that 
his father was summoned from the hayfield by the blowing of a horn to 
change the mail while the carrier, who came on horseback, sought rest 
and refreshment. Rufus Kellogg, after a few years, moved the office to 
the main village, keeping it in the building now occupied by Frank 
Wood. At the right on the Pelham road, just beyond its comer, near 
the residence of Noah Dickinson, and the Common, there stood in 1787 
a tavern kept by Oliver Clapp, a friend and sympathizer of Daniel Shays, 
the leader of Shays' Rebellion. Landlord Clapp is said to have given 
aid and comfort in various ways to the insurgent captain. On the retreat 
of Shays from Springfield, January 28, 1787, with his eleven hundred 
men, a halt was made at the hostelry, but not for a long stay, as General 
Lincoln, commanding the State militia, was following in the rear. Just 
after Captain Shays had departed toward Pelham, eleven sleigh-loads of 
his provisions stopped at the tavern, where the horses were about to be 


fed, but the loyal innkeeper hurried them after the retreating rebels, who 
were in great need of the stores, and would have been seriously affected 
if General Lincoln had appeared in time to take the loaded sleighs. 

After Clapp's tavern was given up, another was built at the north end 
of the Common. This is still standing, though it has outlived its first 
use by many years. 

On the east side of the Common is the old residence of General Ebene- 
zer Mattoon, a major in the Revolution, member of Congress in 1801, 
a sheriff of Hampshire Country, major-general and adjutant-general of 
the State militia, and captain of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery 
Company of Boston. He was born in 1755, and died in 1843. 

A short distance from the village Common, on the road to Belcher- 
town, are the grounds of the Hampshire County Agricultural Society. 

South Amherst is a small farming village in the southeastern part 
of the town. It has a church, a post-office, and store, and not far away 
are stations of the Massachusetts Central and New London Northern 

The South Congregational church was first organized in 1824, and 
reorganized in 1858. The church building, erected in 1825, was 
remodelled in 1843. The first pastor was Rev. H. B. Chapin. Rev. 
H. W. Boyd was pastor in 1891. 

The post-office was established in 1838. 

The town almshouse, and farm, near the east street, was rebuilt, after 
a destructive fire, in 1882. It is valued at about $8000, and yields the 
town, under the superintendence of Henry C. Dickinson, a good return 
upon its value. 




AMHERST COLLEGE was opened September 18, 1821, under 
the name of the "Collegiate Charitable Institution." On this 
day the first president was inaugurated, and the first building 

As long before as 1762, the people of Hampshire County had made 
several ineffectual attempts to obtain a charter from the General Court 
and the Governor of the Province of Massachusetts to incorporate a 
" seminary of learning." The matter seems to have been forgotten in 
the excitement of the approaching war ; but the interest then awakened 
was only in abeyance, and afterward resulted in the founding of Williams 
College and the establishment of Amherst Academy. It was from this 
latter institution that the Amherst College developed. 

The Academy was opened in 1814. The residents of Hampshire and 
the surrounding counties subscribed the money needed for its support, 
and in 1816 the State granted it a charter. The building stood upon 
the site of the present grammar school-house on Amity Street ; and the 
land was the gift of Dr. David Parsons, afterward made president of the 
Board of Trustees. Many distinguished names are to be found upon 
the books of the Academy, connected with it as teachers and pupils. 
For years it ranked among the first schools of Massachusetts. 

In 1818, when the trustees were engaged in collecting a scholarship 
fund of Si 0,000 for " indigent young men with the ministry in view," it 
became evident that the people were willing to give a larger sum for an 
institution of a higher grade. Accordingly, after more than $51,000 
had been gathered in conditional subscriptions, it was voted to found 
the " Collegiate Charitable Institution." The money thus obtained was 
the first that Amherst College had, and to-day it is entered on the books 
of the treasurer as the " Charitable Fund." 


The laying of the corner-stone of the first building of the Charitable 
Institution, the present South College, is thus mentioned in the reports 
of the occasion : "On the ninth of August instant (1820) the Board of 
Trustees of Amherst Academy, together with the subscribers to the fund 
then present, a number of the neighboring clergy, and the preceptors 
and students of the Academy, preceded by the building committee and 
the workmen, moved in procession from the Academy to the ground 
of the Charity Institution." The dedication exercises, the fall of the 
year following, were simple, and opened with an address by Noah 
Webster, president of the Board of Trustees. The institution began 
September 19, with forty-seven students and three instructors. 

After the young college had been fairly launched upon its career, the 
trustees, who were still trustees of the Academy, turned their attention 
toward obtaining a State charter, which should give them the privileges 
of a recognized college. It was a long struggle against well-organized 
opposition from Harvard, Brown, and Williams colleges. State politics 
were affected not a little by it, but the publicity of the agitation only 
brought popularity to the infant institution. When the charter, which 
changed the name to Amherst College, was finally granted, February 25, 
1825, the number of the students and instructors had increased nearly 
threefold. Upon those students who had graduated prior to the grant- 
ing of the charter the trustees immediately conferred the honorary 
degrees due to them. 

The first president of Amherst College was the Rev. Zephaniah Swift 
Moore, D.D. He had been president of Williams College, resigning 
that office to accept the position at Amherst. His official term was 
from September, 1821, to June 29, 1823, when he died. The following 
list gives the names and terms of office of the succeeding presidents of 
the College : 

Heman Humphrey, D.D 1823-1845 

Edward Hitchcock, D.D., LL.D , 1845-1854 

William Augustus Stearns, D.D., LL.D 1854-1876 

Julius Hawley Seelye, D.D., LL.D 1876-1890 

Merrill Edwards Gates, Ph.D., LL.D., L.H.D., chosen president July 
30, 1890, assumed the duties of the office October 27 of the same year. 
His formal inauguration occurred at the following commencement. 

The government of the College is vested in a Board of Trustees, whose 
corporate name is " The Trustees of Amherst College." Its member- 


ship can never be more than seventeen, of whom seven must be clergy- 
men and the remainder laymen. 

The College is not sectarian, and there are no sectarian or denomi- 
national restrictions as to the membership of the Board. 

Five positions are now filled by the alumni of the College, though for 
nearly fifty years the legislature of the State exercised this power. The 
Board holds two regular meetings, usually one during commencement 
week, and the other in the fall of each year, special meetings being 
called by the president when necessary. The control of the internal 
affairs of the College is in the hands of the faculty, of whom the presi- 
dent is the executive officer. This body in 1891 comprised twenty-two 
professors and nine lecturers and instructors. 

In 1882, at the suggestion of President Seelye, the faculty associated 
with them in the direction of college affairs a body of ten students, 
known as the College Senate. The members are elected by their classes, 
acting under established regulations, four seniors, three juniors, two 
sophomores, and one freshman. The president of the College presides 
at the meetings of the Senate and may veto any of its actions. All 
questions of decorum and discipline may be brought before it, and 
offenders may be punished by suspension or expulsion from college. 

Since its beginning the plan has proved successful in lessening the 
number of .restriction rules of the College, bringing the students and 
teachers in close yet dignified relations, and developing a manlier spirit 
among the students. In a letter to the alumni of the College in the 
fall of 1888 President Seelye said : 

" The action of the faculty in referring to the decision of the Senate all questions 
of college order and decorum has been justified by the result. The Senate have con- 
sidered such questions, from the first, intelligently and without passion; and during 
the past year there has been an evident growth in their sense of responsibility, and in 
the weight given to their judgments by the College. The decisions of the Senate 
have sometimes gone entirely counter to the prevailing wishes of the students ; but 
they have been accepted, so far as I know, without dissent. The Senate seems now 
able, not merely to voice, but to direct, college sentiment on matters submitted to 
their jurisdiction ; and I cannot but think that there is in this an educating force of 
great worth and promise." 

The Amherst method of student government has recently been copied 
by several prominent institutions. The Senate meets monthly at the 
president's office. 


The departments of instruction may be divided into Philosophy, His- 
tory and Art, Language and Literature, and Science. The student is 
offered his choice of a classical or a scientific course, the former entitling 
him at graduation to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and the latter to 
that of Bachelor of Science. 

The work of the first year at Amherst College is prescribed for all 
students. After the first term of the sophomore year, 'there is great 
freedom of choice among an exceedingly broad system of electives. 
Out of the fourteen to sixteen hours of work in a week for each student 
through sophomore year, an average of less than five ; through junior 
year, a little more than one ; and through senior year, a little more than 
three, which includes philosophy and oratory, are prescribed for 
each term. 

The elective studies, open for choice, include the fullest work in 
Greek, Latin, French, German, Italian, and Sanskrit ; ample courses in 
rhetoric and oratory, logic, English literature, biology, both cryptogamic 
and phenogramic ; zoology, physiology, and general biology, and full 
opportunity for laboratory work in chemistry. In geology and miner- 
alogy the College has held a leading place ever since the work of Presi- 
dent Hitchcock made its name as well known in England and Germany 
as in America. For physics, the new laboratory will afford, in addition 
to the general work, ample facilities for full courses in electricity and 
its application. There are full courses in practical and theoretical 
astronomy with observatory work ; and thorough instruction in history, 
political economy, political ethics, and the duties of citizenship ; in psy- 
chology, moral philosophy, metaphysics, and the history of philosophy, 
and biblical literature. Physical culture is prescribed throughout the 
college course. 

Attendance upon college exercises is required. An allowance for 
necessary absences is made by permitting the student to remain away 
from one-tenth of the total number of exercises of each course in a 
term, without requiring an equivalent. An excess of this proportion of 
absences is made up by specially assigned work, the amount of which 
is determined by the degree of the delinquency. In the case of excess 
of absences from Sunday services and morning prayers, special work in 
some of the regular courses is required. 

The number of students in the College has averaged 344 during the 
ten years ending 1891. It is a matter of some interest to note that 

Page 95. 




during the last few years about one-seventh of all the entering students 
have come to Amherst from other institutions. In 1891 the students 
represented thirty States of the Union. The following table gives the 
number of students and teachers, at intervals of five years, since the 
founding of the College. It indicates the fact that the largest number 
in college, until after the year 1866, was 259 in 1836, and that between 
these years there was a period of great depression. Since 1851 the 
increase has been gradual, but almost constant. 





I 7O 






1 2O 

1886. ... 






Amherst College receives students from a large number of prepara- 
tory schools, some of the best of which are allowed to enter their pupils 
on certificate of the work done. 

The following are some of the leading ones : 

Adelphi Academy, Brooklyn, X.Y. 
Boston Latin School, Boston, Mass. 
Chicago High School, Chicago, 111. 
Newton High School, Newton, Mass. 
Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. 
Phillips Academy, Exeter, N.H. 
Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Roxbury Latin School, Roxbury, Mass. 
Saxton River Academy, Saxton River. 
Springfield High School, Springfield, Mass. 
St. Johnsbury Academy, St. Johnsbury, Vt. 
Williston Seminary, Easthampton, Mass. 
Worcester Academy, Worcester, Mass. 
Worcester High School, Worcester, Mass. 

The amount of pecuniary assistance that Amherst is able to give its 
worthy students is constantly increasing. 

An enthusiastic scholar of slender means need not leave the Col- 
lege for want of aid. Opportunities for earning money are frequently 


offered by the residents of the town, and desirable positions where a 
student can aid himself by rendering service in the different depart- 
ments of the College are reserved exclusively for those who require 
financial assistance in obtaining their education. In addition to this, 
the beneficiary funds are divided liberally and justly. The amounts 
available are shown in this table : 

Charitable fund $83,000 

Scholarship fund 70,400 

Private scholarship gifts 470 

Fellowships 550 

Prizes l >779 


The cost of an education at Amherst is so often a matter of serious 
concern within the family circle that reliable data cannot fail to be 
appreciated. Published estimates are often found to differ from 
experience. Careful inquiries have been made among trustworthy 
students of the College, and the estimates given below are based upon 
actual experiences. The effort has been to err, if at all, in overstating 
rather than understating those expenses which vary with a student's 
personal habits. The smallest annual expenditure reported was $308.50, 
which included every item of cost except the long vacation. A large 
number of students spend less than $400, and this can be done without 
suffering of any kind. The majority of students are believed to spend 
between $475 and $675 each year. In the following table the annual 
expenditures are itemized upon four different scales. The actual cost 
of each item has been carefully obtained and entered, without taking 
into consideration the fact that it is almost universally the custom in 
college to reduce the net expenses by renting furniture, or buying it, 
as well as books, at second hand, and of disposing of them at the close 
of the course or of the year. These and other very useful methods 
of economizing may well be considered by students who wish to 
estimate in advance the expense of going through college. The upper 
limit of expenditure is of course indeterminable. The estimate in this 
case is made on the assumption that the student rooms alone, while 
in the three lower tables, the expenses of room-rent, fuel, lights, and 
furniture are entered as if shared with a room-mate. 








(b) 12.00 





$1 IO.OO 



(a) 20.00 



$1 10.00 





(a) 20.00 

$1 IO.OO 





(a) 20.00 





Fuel and Lights . . . 

Furniture (annual aver- 
afe^) . 

Society Fees .... 

Subscriptions .... 






(a) This sum is believed to be a fair average. (b) In the dormitory. 

The Department of Physical Education and Hygiene deserves especial 
attention here, because it was the first to be established as a part of the 
regular course in any American college. In fact, the systems of physical 
culture now in use in nearly all the institutions of learning in this coun- 
try are largely copies, or embody many features, of the Amherst system. 
To the late President Stearns belongs the credit of suggesting that daily 
exercise under the supervision of a physician should be a required por- 
tion of the college student's life. He had found that, if left to them- 
selves, the students neglected to care for their health, and frequently 
graduated from college physically wrecked. The plan he proposed was 
at length adopted by the trustees, and a regular professorship founded. 
In 1860 the Barrett Gymnasium was built for the department, and the 
year following Dr. Edward Hitchcock, the son of President Hitchcock, 
and the present incumbent of the position, was appointed. The history 
of the department is the history of the life of its chief. He developed 
a system at first unknown, then distrusted, but now approved by the 
most eminent educators. 


The present organization of the department brings within its scope 
everything which has a bearing upon the physical welfare of the college 
students. Its purposes may be conveniently classed under these five 
heads : 

Personal acquaintance with the physical condition of every student. 

Requirement of the amount of daily exercise which experience has 
shown to be most beneficial, and the direction of all who take special 

Examination of every student at intervals during the college course, 
and preservation of all statistics thus taken. 

Class instruction in anatomy, physiology, and hygiene. 

Control of the general athletics of the College. 

These functions are fully performed. At all times during the college 
year Dr. Hitchcock is thoroughly conversant with the general health of 
every student. Overwork is scarcely possible under such care, and 
when sickness does occur, the case is carefully followed by the depart- 
ment, which interferes, however, in no way with the physician in charge. 
Students may at any time consult Dr. Hitchcock. 

Regular exercise in the Gymnasium is required of every student in 
college. Each class assembles four days in the week for a half-hour's 
pleasant drill with wooden dumb-bells. There are always class officers 
to lead the exercise under the direction of the professor or his assistants. 
In a modified way, well adapted to the purposes of the department, the 
organization of the classes is like that of a military body. An annual 
prize drill occurs in May, the three upper classes competing. The 
prize on this occasion is $100, given by Dr. Rufus P. Lincoln, of the 
class of 1862, to the class obtaining the highest mark in the dumb-bell 
drill and marching. Athletically inclined students, particularly those in 
training for any of the college teams, are given every needed suggestion 
and direction. 

Perhaps the most interesting portion of the work of Dr. Hitchcock, 
and certainly the most valuable to the department, is the system of 
anthropometry, or recording of physical statistics. Three times during 
the college course the student is examined, measured, and tested in 
every essential function of the body. If found defective or undeveloped 
in any parts, he is advised what he may do to reach, or exceed, the 
usual standard. From the immense number of measurements made in 
the past thirty years, the department is able to give a valuable and 


interesting average of measurements as a basis for advice and the future 
exercise of the student. The examination that is thus made is more 
minute than that required in the United States army. An important 
feature of the system, as practised at Amherst, is the publication of the 
averages for the use of all who may be benefited by them. 

Dr. Hitchcock conducts classes in the subjects that are important as 
giving the young man a thorough knowledge of the proper care of his 
health. This study is required early in the college course. 

In the direction of the general athletics of the College, the department 
exercises only a reasonable supervision of the members of the base-ball, 
foot-ball, and athletic teams of the College. The control in the matter 
of conducting the contests for championships with other colleges, and 
the financial management of the teams, is lodged in the Athletic Board, 
organized in 1891, and consisting of three members of the college fac- 
ulty, four alumni of the College, who are not members of the faculty, 
and the managers of the three teams. Of these members, Dr. Hitch- 
cock, as the head of the department, and F. B. Pratt of the class of 
1887, as the donor of the Pratt Field, are life members. 

Dr. Hitchcock has as an assistant, a practising physician in the town, 
and since 1 890 there has been a second assistant under the provisions 
of the Lincoln fellowship fund. 


During a portion of the long vacation of Amherst College, the Summer 
School of Languages, under the direction of Professor W. L. Montague, 
is in session. The school was established in 1877 by Dr. L. Sauveur of 
New York City. From the beginning, Professor Montague has been 
actively connected with its management, assuming the entire control in 
1883, when Dr. Sauveur retired. The school term opens shortly after 
the College has closed, and continues five weeks a period which is 
always pleasantly and profitably occupied with recitations, frequently 
in the open air, lectures, excursions, and many social affairs. 

The College Chapel forms the headquarters of the Summer School. 
In this building are the director's office and the rooms of most of the 
recitations. Walker Hall opens several of its rooms for recitations ; 
Williston Hall for work in chemistry ; and the privileges of the Gymna- 
sium, Appleton Cabinet, the Observatory, and the Library are all offered 
to the members of the school. 


Making no pretensions at the first to be anything more than a school 
of languages, the courses of study have been gradually broadened until, 
in 1891, they were embraced in twelve distinct courses, as follows: 
French, German, Greek and Latin, Italian, Spanish, English Literature, 
Art, Chemistry, Anglo-Saxon and Early English, Physical Education, 
Library Economy, and Mathematics. All of these courses are graded 
so that the best advantages are offered to persons of every degree of 
accomplishment. A most enjoyable feature of the French and German 
departments has always been the boarding-tables, at which native teachers 
preside and all English words are strictly discountenanced. The amount 
of study is entirely optional. Frequent lectures upon interesting sub- 
jects are delivered each week. 

The board of teachers of the school comprised eighteen members in 
1891, and three special lecturers. Professor Montague is himself a 
thorough language student, being at the head of the departments of 
French, Italian, and Spanish in Amherst College. The instructors in 
French, German, and Italian are natives of foreign countries, all highly 
educated, and speaking their language in its purity and perfection. 

The members of the school are, to a great extent, teachers of various 
schools throughout the country, coming to Amherst to increase their 
knowledge and improve the methods which can be gained only from 
native instructors. Besides these, there are always many people who 
study for their own pleasure, and young men and women in preparation 
for college or special work. The average attendance in the five years 
ending in 1890 has been over two hundred, and nearly every State and 
Territory in the Union has been represented. 

An especial aim of the school is to furnish the best instruction and to 
reduce the expenses of those attending to a minimum. The accom- 
panying table gives the necessary items of expenditure : 

All the languages and lectures, excepting Anglo-Saxon and Early English, $16 

Anglo-Saxon and Early English 8 


full day 22 

half day , . 12 


out-door sketching 8 

in-door work 8 

normal work 12 

wood-carving 8 


Physical training 

full course $10 

half course 5 


one subject 10 

two subjects 18 

Library Economy 10 

To members of the School of Languages a reduction of $2 from 
each item under Chemistry, Art, Physical Training, and Mathematics is 
allowed. If only lectures are attended, the charge is $i each course. 

The sessions of the school have always proved successful from a 
social as well as a scholarly standpoint. Amherst offers a wealth of 
natural enjoyment that is never unappreciated, and excursions, drives, 
and picnics are as numerous as there are days in the school. Taken all 
in all, the life of a summer school student is far from being irksome. 


One of the chief features of a visit to Amherst is a walk through the 
college grounds, with a glance at the buildings and their interesting histo- 
ries. With the exception of College Hall, the Church, and the Cabi- 
nets, all will be found open during the greater part of the day when the 
College or the Summer School of Languages is in session. The Cabi- 
nets may be seen during fixed hours each week-day, usually from ten 
o'clock to five, between May i5th and November ist, and from ten to 
twelve and three to four at other seasons ; or they will be opened at any 
time on application to the custodians, whose residences are usually 
bulletined at the entrances. 

Perhaps the most convenient starting-point for such a tour is at the 
corner of Northampton Street and the Common, where stands 

College Hall, which was built in 1830, by the First Congregational 
Society of Amherst, and used by them as a place of worship until 1867, 
when purchased by the College for $8000. The building is now used for 
the public lectures, commencement, and other exercises of the College, 
and has a seating capacity of eight hundred, which may be increased 
by nearly two hundred if the platform be brought into service. Next to 
College Hall is the 


Henry T. Morgan Library, enlarged to its present size in 1882. 
The original building included the square portion at the northeast corner 
and the tower, and was built in 1853 at an expense of $10,000. This 
was the first stone building of the College. The new portion, compris- 
ing the librarian's office and the rooms above it at the side, and the 
large book room at the rear, was designed by Allen & Kenway of 
Boston, and was completed at a cost of $48,381, which included the 
entire renovation of the original building. The whole structure is of 
Pelham granite. In the hallway, at the right of the entrance, and in 
the old portion, is a room for small gatherings and recitations, used as 
headquarters of the alumni at commencement ; beyond it is a packing- 
room, both of these opening into a large cataloguing-room. The libra- 
rian's office is at the end of the hallway. On the walls at the right of 
this hall are valuable specimens of Assyrian art, in the shape of eight 
huge sculptured stone slabs, bearing colossal mythological figures in 
relief and hieroglyphic inscriptions. Their actual cost was about $600 ; 
their value many thousands. These slabs were presented to the College 
in 1855 by the late Rev. Henry Lobdell, of the class of 1849, a mission- 
ary to Assyria, who died at Mosul in 1850. They were taken from the 
palace of Sardanapalus, the last king of Assyria, and their inscriptions 
belong to a period nine hundred years before Christ. In 1871 Rev. 
W. H. Ward, D.D., of the class of 1856, and since 1870 editor of the 
New York Independent, greatly enhanced the value of these works of 
ancient art by translating, from the cuneiform characters, into English 
the inscriptions, which were found to be a record of a conquest. The 
manuscript translations are preserved in a bound volume in the Library, 
and are very interesting even to those not professing to be archaeological 
students. At the head of the stairs is the book-delivery room of the 
Library, opening from which is the reading-room, which occupies the 
entire second story of the original building, and formerly contained all 
the books of the Library. 

The reference books and periodical literature are kept here. This 
is a large, finely decorated room, lighted by long windows, and a lantern 
in the roof. In the side opposite the entrance are beautiful stained- 
glass windows of appropriate design. They are the gift of Hon. Frederic 
Ayer of Lowell. Beginning at the left of the entrance of the room, the 
paintings on the walls are in this order : the first five presidents of the 
College, Drs. Moore, Humphrey, Hitchcock, Stearns, and Seelye ; Pro- 


fessor W. S. Tyler, Professor N. W. Fiske, Professor C. B. Adams, Pro- 
fessor C. U. Shepard, Professor Aaron Warner, who were all at the same 
time members of the faculty ; and Joel Giles of Townsend, Hon. David 
Sears of Boston, Hon. Samuel Williston of Easthampton, Hon. Chester W. 
Chapin of Springfield, S. H. Winkley of Philadelphia, Hon. G. H. Gilbert 
of Ware, Rev. Dr. Brace of Hartford, Conn., who have been liberal bene- 
factors of the College. The portraits in the book-delivery room are of 
President Stearns and Hon. David Sears. The attendants will readily 
grant permission to inspect the book room, and visitors will find it very 
interesting. There are six floors for the storage of the books, each 50 
by 41 feet in area and y|- in height. They are entirely of iron lattice- 
work, which, with the walls of solid masonry and iron door, renders the 
entire room as nearly fireproof as it is possible it could be. The shelves 
are capable of holding 20,000 volumes on each floor, or more than 
120,000 in all. At the first of January, 1891, there were 55,000 volumes 
in the Library, and the annual increase is between 2000 and 2500. In 
1867, the libraries of the Athenae and the Alexandrian societies, then in 
very active existence, were merged into the college Library, and for 
some years the members of these organizations paid an annual fee to the 
College for the care and increase of the volumes. The students have 
always been allowed almost complete freedom of access to the book 
room and its. contents. The building bears the name of Henry T. 
Morgan of Albany, whose generous gifts to the College aided in erecting 
the new portion of the Library. In 1891, William I. Fletcher was the 

Next to the Library stands the 

President's House. This was erected by the trustees of the Col- 
lege in the year 1834, and cost $9000. The first house erected for the 
president of the College is still standing, and, in a remodelled condi- 
tion, is the chapter house of the Psi Upsilon Fraternity. President 
Humphrey occupied the present house immediately after its erection. 
For a number of years previous to 1891 it was a private school for 
young ladies, and after being again remodelled became the home of 
President M. E. Gates. 

Crossing the head of the Common, in front of the Library, the 

College Fence is noticed at the right. This is an institution peculiar 
to college men. It is usually the scene of the celebration of the victories 
of the College, and almost any summer evening a group of students can 


be found gathered upon it, making the air melodious with college songs. 
It was presented by the class of 1889 and dedicated by appropriate exer- 
cises, in which the faculty and students took part, in the spring of 1887. 
Custom prohibits the freshman class, unless having won some honor for 
the College, from using this fence. 

Passing into the college grounds, the brick building at the right is 

Williston Hall, which occupies the site of the former North College 
dormitory. The dormitory was built in 1827 at an expense of $10,000, 
and was burned early in the spring of 1857. The loss occurred during 
the darkest days of Amherst's history, but it proved an unexpected 
benefit. Scarcely had the flames been extinguished when the late Hon. 
Samuel Williston of Easthampton announced that he would erect a new 
building, containing recitation rooms and laboratories that had long 
been needed by the College. Williston Hall was thus dedicated May 
19, 1858, and cost $15,000. The main entrance of the building is on 
the north side, and in the hallway is an interesting memorial of the 
Amherst College students who fought in the Rebellion. It is a six- 
pound brass cannon, which was captured at Newbern, N.C., March 
14, 1862, and upon it is engraved its history and the names of the 
Amherst students four officers and sixteen privates who were killed 
in the battle. After its capture, the cannon was presented by General 
Burnside to the Twenty-first Regiment, M.V., who in turn gave it to 
the trustees of Amherst College " as an enduring monument to the 
memory of their lamented brothers who fell while fighting for liberty 
and union." 

The Mather Collection of Art occupies the entire upper story of the 
building. It is probably the finest collection of plaster casts in the United 
States, excepting only that at Boston, Mass. The honor of the sug- 
gestion, as well as of the actual gathering of money and purchasing of 
the collection belongs to the memory of the late Professor Richard H. 
Mather. Professor Mather solicited, largely from personal friends, the 
first $10,000 of the fund, and made the selections himself when visiting 
Europe. The casts began to arrive in 1874, and during Professor 
Mather's life not a year passed without the addition of something desir- 
able. The collection has long since outgrown its present room, and 
until better accommodations are provided few additions can be made, 
although a fund is constantly accumulating. 

As an example of the care that Professor Mather took in making the 


collection, it may be remarked that it contains the only cast in existence 
of the bronze doors of the Senate Chamber at Washington. 

The design for these doors was modelled by Crawford, and they were 
cast at Chicopee, Mass. At the opposite end of the gallery are casts 
of the Ghiberti doors at Florence, Italy. The frescoing about the room 
is pure Greek in style. 

The Greek lecture room on the second story is reached from the art 
gallery by the smaller stairway. This was originally the hall of the 
Athene Society. The corresponding room on the same floor reached 
from the door at the eastern side of the tower was at the same time 
occupied by the Alexandrian Society. This latter room is used, pending 
the completion of the new chemical laboratory, as the laboratory for 
advanced work. The chemistry lecture room is at the left of the south 
entrance on the ground floor, and the general laboratory is at the right. 
Crossing the driveway in front of Williston Hall, the stone building at 
the left is 

Walker Hall. This building was completed as it now stands in 
1883, and cost $87,250. Twelve years previously, a building of the 
same general design was erected on the same site through the gener- 
osity of Dr. W. J. Walker of Charlestovvn, Mass. The original Walker 
Hall was burned March, 1882, and with it was destroyed one of the 
most valuable collections of minerals in the country. A portion of 
the outside wall of the building alone remained, and after it had been 
strengthened on the inside, became a part of the new Walker Hall. The 
expense of the rebuilding was met by the late Henry T. Morgan of 
Albany, N.Y., and in return he was honored by having his name 
attached to the College Library. The rooms of the building are assigned 
as follows : i, registrar's office ; 2, treasurer's office ; 4, physics work- 
room ; 5, pastor's office ; 3 and 6, recitation rooms ; 7 and 8, physics 
lecture room and laboratory ; 9, president's office ; 10, recitation room ; 
n, astronomical lecture room; 12, 13, and 14, recitation rooms. 

The rooms of the physics department are open for inspection. The 
laboratory contains about $9000 worth of apparatus, of which $2000 worth 
was constructed especially for the College in Paris. The lecture room has 
upon the wall, at the right of the entrance, a brass tablet to the memory 
of the late Professor Elihu Root, placed there by the class of 1881. 

The Barrett Gymnasium, erected in 1860 at a cost of $10,000, was 
largely the means of developing the system of physical culture for which 



Amherst is justly famous. It was the first building in the country 
erected for gymnastic work in charge of a regularly appointed profes- 
sor. It is of Pelham granite, and is 70 feet long by 50 wide. It was 
designed by C. E. Parkes of Boston, and bears the name of Dr. Benja- 
min Barrett of Northampton, who was a large contributor toward the 
fund for its erection and support. Since the completion of the Pratt 
Gymnasium in 1884, the building has been used for various purposes, 
while awaiting alterations to make it a geological cabinet. 

The Barrett Gymnasium. 

When used as a gymnasium, the physician's office, dressing-rooms, and 
bowling-alleys were on the ground floor, with the main hall for class and 
special exercise above. 

The College Church, designed by W. A. Potter of New York, was 
erected in 1870-71, and cost $70,060, of which the late William F. 
Stearns, son of President Stearns, contributed $47,000. The site for the 
building was chosen for its remarkable beauty. A dormitory known as 
" East College " stood between it and the tree-sheltered path leading to 
the college well. This dormitory was taken down shortly after the church 
was completed. The view from the rear of the church is one of the 
finest within the limits of Amherst. Two miles across the valley, the 
Pelham hills rise in gentle outline, the range extending from the north, 


as far as can be seen, until near the southern limit of the town it is lost 
in the Belchertown hills. The valley, broad and fertile, is well popu- 
lated in parts, and contains nearly all the manufactories of the town. 
Toward the south it spreads out into generous farmlands through which 
run two thread-like railways. The grandeur of this landscape when the 
foliage has become brilliant in the fall, is unsurpassed by any in the west- 
ern part of the Commonwealth. This crest of the College Hill is visited 
by lovers of nature in every season of the year. 

The church building itself is not out of harmony with its surroundings. 
Its gray sides and brown sandstone trimmings are plentifully covered 
with the soft, clinging ivies planted by the college classes at their gradu- 
ation. At the entrances and between the windows are soft-hued shafts 
of marble. Curious carvings decorate the brown stones in the gable 
ends of the building. "Dei Glorias" and "A.D. 1870" are on the 
north side ; the cross and other symbols of the Christian Church, with 
small reliefs of the four evangelists, between the windows, on the east 
side ; a lantern, thorn branch, passion flower, wheat, and grape vine, all 
typical of incidents in the life of Christ, on the south side ; and " Agnus 
Dei " and " Rex," " Lex," " Dux," " Lux," on the west side. The spire 
of the church is about one hundred and fifty feet high, and twenty-four 
feet square at the base. Its four sections are alternately square and 
octagonal .. Within it hangs a chime of eight bells, given by George 
Howe of Boston, as a memorial of the Amherst boys who fell in the 
War of the Rebellion. The gift acquires special significance from the 
fact that the son of Mr. Howe was among the number whose lives were 
sacrificed for their country. The seats in the main portion of the church 
are reserved for the families of the faculty, the juniors, and seniors. In 
the right transept are seated the freshmen, in the left the sophomores. 
The capacity of the house is about six hundred. The stained glass 
window in the right transept was given by the Congregational church 
at Bedford, Mass., President Stearns' native place ; that opposite, by 
Ex-Governor Onslow Stearns of Concord, N.H. ; and that in the rear of 
the church, by the late Eckley Stearns of \Voburn, Mass. President 
Stearns' former church at Cambridgeport, Mass., presented the pulpit. 
Tablets placed upon the church walls commemorate the useful lives of 
President Stearns, William F. Stearns, and Professor Richard H. Mather. 
The corner-stone of the building was laid in the autumn of 1875, and 
the dedication occurred July i, 1873. 


At the side of the college grounds, and south of the church is 
The Pratt Gymnasium, begun in the summer of 1883, and completed 
the following spring at a cost of $68,000. It ranks third among the col- 
lege gymnasiums of the country, those of Yale and Harvard only being 
superior in size and cost. The building is of brick with brownstone 
trimmings, and is 122 feet long and 88 wide. It bears the name of Pratt 
Gymnasium in recognition of the generosity of Mr. Charles M. Pratt of 
New York, a graduate of the class of 1879. In the hall, at the right 
of the main entrance of the building, is a brass tablet, bearing this 
inscription : 





The office of the professor of hygiene and physical culture and the 
room for making physical examinations and recording statistics occupy 
the corner of the first floor, between the main and side entrances. The 
other rooms on this floor are the large dressing-room, containing 274 
heated and ventilated lockers, and shower-bath, dry-rub, and small 
dressing-rooms. The main hall is 80 feet long by 64 wide, and contains 
such apparatus as is needed for class and individual exercise. It is two 
stories high, and lighted and ventilated from the sides and roof. A 
running-gallery, 207 feet lof inches long and 6 feet wide, encircles the 
hall ii feet above the floor. In the second story is the "Resort," the 
headquarters of the college weekly, The Amherst Student, and a store- 
place for many highly prized trophies and relics of college interest ; a 
billiard room, the only one in the country connected with a college 
gymnasium, and containing a pool and two billiard tables; and the 
rooms for the custodians of the building. The basement has a base-ball 
cage, 76 by 21 feet, three bowling-alleys, 70 feet long, and a sparring- 
room. Tub and sponge baths of the best patterns, dressing, and furnace 
rooms occupy the remainder of the basement. 


As the visitor passes up the walk from the main entrance of the 
Gymnasium, directly in front, is 

Appleton Cabinet, erected in 185 5, at an expense of Si 0,000, appro- 
priated for the purpose by the trustees of the will of the late Samuel 
Appleton of Boston. Mr. Appleton left the sum of $200,000 at the 
disposal of his executors to be used for benevolent and scientific 
purposes, and it was in response to the urgent appeals of President 
Hitchcock, then in office, that the money for this building was obtained. 
The portion of the Cabinet first approached as the visitor proceeds from 
the Gymnasium, is the biological laboratory and lecture room, where 
specimens for class work and illustration are kept. 

The main part of the building has been made almost completely fire- 
proof for the protection of the collections that are stored hi it. The 
entrance from the biological lecture room is closed by heavy iron doors. 
The second story is devoted to the Adams Zoological Museum, a large 
part of which was the gift of the late Professor C. B. Adams. The col- 
lection of insects and shells are kept in the horizontal cases. The latter 
collection comprises about eight thousand species, and of it Professor 
Louis Agassiz once said, " I do not know in all the country a con- 
chological collection of equal value." In the gallery at the head of the 
hall has been placed the Audubon collection of birds, presented to the 
College in 1886 by the Hon. E. E. Farnam, of the class of 1855. It is 
valued at $1200. The cast of the skeleton of the American Megathe- 
rium, near the entrance, was the gift of the late Joshua Bates of London, 
England. The original skeleton was found in Buenos Ayres, South 

The ground-floor of the Cabinet is chiefly occupied by the Hitchcock 
Ichnological collection, made by the late President Hitchcock between 
the years 1835 anc * 1864. President Hitchcock was the originator and 
developer of the science of Ichnology, and this collection is the largest 
and most valuable of its kind in the world. It now consists of 21,773 
tracks of animals of 120 different species, all belonging to the general 
name of Lithichnozoa, or Stone-track animals. Most of the slabs were 
taken from stone-quarries at Turner's Falls, South Hadley, and Holyoke. 
Complete reports of the discoveries were prepared by President Hitch- 
cock, and submitted, in 1853 and 1865, to the State. Among the most 
interesting of these slabs, as one passes through the room, is the large 
horizontal stone at the left, marked with the tracks of the great " Oto- 


zoum." It was found at Mount Tom station ; and on the table beside 
it is the reverse of the impression. This enormous animal had the bulk 
of an elephant and the build of a toad. On the wall, behind the bust of 
President Hitchcock, is a set of specimens which prove the animals 
making these tracks to have been quadrupeds. The marks show the 
fore-feet, the trace of the tail and the hind-feet, with imprints of the heels, 
as if the animal had crouched down on the soft mud. On the stairway 
wall is another interesting stone, which has the footprints of an animal 
that had lost one of its toes, the impressions showing first a two-toed, 
and then a three-toed foot. In the first wall case are the only bones of 
the track-making animals ever found in Massachusetts. The next slab 
at the left, standing on edge, shows impressions of the feet of an enor- 
mous animal, the tracks being a foot long, and between them running a 
great tail-trace. The large, framed slab has interest because it was used 
a long time as a flagstone. Near it hangs the egg and leg-bones of an 
existing bird of New Zealand. They were placed there at the time the 
track-making animals were thought to be birds : at the present time 
they are generally believed to have been reptiles. 

The next slab is marked by the feet of an enormous three-toed bird ; 
the imprints will hold a gallon of water, and are three times the size of 
those of an elephant. The central one of the side rooms contains, on 
the walls and tables, a collection of slabs remarkable for the great variety 
of insect tracks. More insect tracks and the most perfect footprint of 
a reptile, ever found, are in the last side room. The footprint shows 
plainly all the wrinkles of the epidermis of a three-toed foot. Under 
the windows in this room are stones marked by rain-drops, one of them 
showing the steps of a lizard-like reptile, who turned a sharp corner in 
his haste, throwing his tail outside of the row of his footprints. There 
are several specimens of what President Hitchcock designated as " stone 
books " here. They show the same footprint through a number of 
layers of stone, and when split open form a book, the leaves of which 
fit into one another. 

The Gilbert Museum of Indian relics is placed in the first of the 
three small rooms. There are four hundred specimens of the stone 
implements used by the North American Indians, especially those of 
the Connecticut Valley. The collection took the name of the Hon. 
George H. Gilbert of Ware, who contributed largely toward the expense 
of gathering it. 


Passing out of the main entrance of the Cabinet, the brick building 
at the right is 

The South College Dormitory. This is the oldest building on the 
college grounds, originally containing both recitation and living rooms. 
Its corner-stone was laid in the summer of 1820 by the trustees of 
Amherst Academy, and the building completed in a little more than 
three months, the dedication occurring in September of the year follow- 
ing. The institution was then known as the Amherst Charitable Insti- 
tution. Noah Webster, president of the Academy, and afterward 
president of the trustees of the Institution, delivered the oration at 
the laying of the corner-stone. The building is 100 feet long and 
30 wide, and cost $10,000, raised by subscription. Much of the 
material used in the construction was contributed by persons living in 
Amherst and the neighboring towns, even at the distance of twenty-five 
miles. On one occasion these acceptable gifts were received just as 
work was about to be suspended for want of material to carry it on. At 
present the building contains thirty-two double rooms. In the summer 
of 1891 extensive alterations were made in this building, steam heat 
and other improvements being introduced, and the suites of rooms so 
arranged that each student might have a well-lighted bedroom ; provis- 
ions made to accommodate three or four students who desire to occupy 
a common room as a study. The views from the windows of some of 
the upper rooms are magnificent. 

The College Chapel, next to the South College Dormitory, was built 
in 1827, and bore for some time the name of Adam Johnson of Pelham, 
who bequeathed money for its erection. The suits at law conducted by 
the college authorities to establish the validity of the will reduced the 
legacy to $4000, and 11,000 had to be raised from other sources. 
The building measures 100 by 56 feet. For many years it accom- 
modated all the departments of instruction in the College. Dr. Tyler 
says that beside the Chapel proper, the " building originally contained 
four recitation rooms, a room for philosophical apparatus, and a cabinet 
for minerals on the ground-floor, two recitation rooms on the second 
floor, a library on the third floor, and a laboratory in the basement." 
The basement was the chemical workshop of Professor Hitchcock, 
afterward president of the College. The arrangements have been very 
little altered since then. The two rooms on the second floor form 
now the small chapel, and the rooms above are seldom used. In the 



main chapel, morning prayers are held. The seniors are assigned the 
seats in the centre of the room hall, the juniors on their right, and 
the sophomores on their left. The gallery is for the freshmen and 

In favorable weather the ascent of the College Chapel tower will repay 
the visitor. There are ninety-eight steps to climb, and the summit com- 
mands a magnificent view of the Connecticut Valley. The stone step 

Woods Cabinet and Observatory. 

in the main doorway of the building is 358 feet above sea-level. The 
clock in the tower was presented "by L. H. McCormick, '81. The 
next building, 

The North College Dormitory, was built in 1822, after the same 
plan as South College. Until the erection of the Chapel, daily prayers 
were held in rooms in the building. Its cost was $10,000. Whenever 
the demand for rooms warrants, this building will be altered in the same 
manner as was South College. On the knoll, in front of the North 
College Dormitory, is situated 

The Woods Cabinet, with the College Observatory and the geological 
lecture rooms adjoining. The building stands upon the site of the first 
meeting-house of the First Congregational Society. The Cabinet and 
the Observatory were built in 1847 at a cost f $9> which was raised 


by subscription, the name of Hon. J. B. Woods of Enfield being given 
to the Cabinet, and that of Hon. Abbott Lawrence to the Observatory, 
in recognition of their bequests to the College. The geological lecture 
room was added in 1855, and cost Siooo ; and two years afterward 
Enos Dickinson of South Amherst gave the Dickinson Nineveh Gallery, 
which for twenty-seven years held the sculptured slabs now in the hall- 
way of the College Library. The collections in this building cover the 
whole subject of geology and mineralogy. The main room on the lower 
floor contains a collection valued at $10,000, illustrating the geology 
of the Western Hemisphere, with particularly complete collections from 
Massachusetts and Connecticut. The large collection of minerals in 
trays is not open to public inspection. On the second floor is the Shep- 
ard collection of meteorolites, and in the gallery a very large collection 
illustrating the geology of the Eastern Hemisphere. 

The Observatory consists of an octagonal tower, 50 feet high and 17 
feet in diameter, with a revolving dome and a central pedestal supporting 
a telescope with an aperture of 7^ inches and a focal lens of 8 inches. 
The telescope was presented by Hon. Rufus Bullock of Boston, and 
cost Si 800. In the transit room, 13 by 15, is a transit circle built by 
Gambey of Paris, the telescope having a focal length of about 3 feet 
and an aperture of 2\ inches. 

Pratt Field, on Northampton and Orchard streets, about a quarter 
of a mile from the college buildings, comprises about thirteen acres of 
land presented for athletic purposes in 1890 by Fred B. Pratt, of 
Brooklyn, a graduate of the class of 1887. The field is laid out with 
a quarter-mile oval track, a hundred-yards straight-away track, and a 
short track for jumping. A handsome grand-stand, designed by 
William B. Tubby of New York, and having a seating capacity of 
six hundred, was erected in 1891 at the west end of the oval. It 
contains ample conveniences for the use of the college teams, including 
dressing-rooms and baths. Other portions of the field are to be laid out 
for lawn tennis and other out-of-door sports. The entire field cost 
about S 2 0,000, of which about $9000 was the price of the grand- 
stand, all being the gift of Mr. Pratt. 

Hallock Park, on the opposite side of the railroad cut, belongs to 
the College : most of it was a gift of Leavitt H. Hallock, of the class 
of 1863. 

On the further side of Snell Street is Blake Field, which for many 


years was the only athletic field of the College. To Lucien I. Blake, 
of the class of 1877, belongs the credit of acquiring this field. In 
1876 he gathered about $900 from the alumni of the College, paying 
the $600 additional in a mortgage in the name of the athletic associa- 
tion. In 1890 this debt was assumed by the trustees. The first athletic 
field of the College is now included in Pratt Field. It was sold to the 
Massachusetts Railroad, who at first proposed to lay their track through 
it, and recently re-purchased. 


Nine of the many Greek-letter fraternities of the country are repre- 
sented among Amherst College students. In order of their establish- 
ment here, they are : Alpha Delta Phi, Psi Upsilon, Delta Kappa 
Epsilon, Delta Upsilon, Chi Psi, Chi Phi, Beta Theta Pi, Theta Delta 
Chi, and Phi Delta Theta. This number is probably larger in pro- 
portion to the size of the College, than can be found at any similar 
institution in the United States ; but notwithstanding this, the college 
authorities are unanimous in believing that Amherst has been benefited, 
intellectually and socially, by the presence of these fraternities. Thus 
far, any well-recognized fraternity has found its efforts to establish a 
chapter at Amherst warmly seconded by the faculty, although, on 
account of the rapid increase during the last few years, it is hardly 
probable that this policy will be continued. During the few years 
directly following the establishment of the earlier chapters, the senti- 
ment of the College generally opposed the idea of secrecy, and the 
open literary and debating clubs were very formidable rivals for society 
honors. At the present time the open societies have disappeared, with 
one exception, and more than eighty-two per cent of all the members 
of the College belong to the Greek-letter fraternities. The actual 
numbers of students in college and members of the fraternities, since 
1889, when the last chapter was established here, are shown by the 
accompanying table : 



'1888-89 358 299 

1889-90 344 281 

1890-91 352 289 


The following letter of Ex- President Julius H. Seelye, printed in the 
Century Magazine for September, 1889, gives an admirable idea of the 
advantages of the societies to their members, as well as of their position 
and relations to the College : 

" Others can give a more accurate opinion than I upon college fraternities else- 
where; but so far as Amherst is concerned there can be only a favorable judgment 
concerning them by any one well informed. Without a doubt they exercise here a 
wholesome energy, both upon their individual members and upon the College. Com- 
bination is strength, whether with young men or old; and where men combine for 
good ends, better results may, of course, be looked for than where the same ends are 
sought by individuals alone. 

" Now the aim of these societies is certainly good. They are not formed for 
pleasure simply, though they are one of the most fruitful sources of pleasure in a 
student's college life. Their first aim is the improvement of their members, im- 
provement in literary culture and manly character. They are all of them literary 
societies. An effort was made not long since to introduce among us a new society, 
with prominently social, rather than literary aims; but it not only failed to receive 
the requisite assent of the president of the College, but was not favored by any con- 
siderable number of the students, many of whom stoutly opposed it. 

" One of the happiest features of society life at Amherst is connected with the 
society houses. There are no better residences in the village than these, and none 
are better kept. They are not extravagant, but they are neat and tasteful; they have 
pleasant grounds surrounding them ; the cost of rooms in them is not greater than 
the average cost in other houses, and they not only furnish the students occupying 
them a pleasant home, but the care of the home and its surroundings is itself a culture. 

" There need be no objection to these societies on account of their secrecy. The 
secrecy is largely in name; it is, in fact, little more than the privacy proper to the 
most familiar intercourse of families and friends. Treated as the societies are among 
us, and occupying the ground they do, no mischief comes from their secrecy. Instead 
of promoting cliques and cabals, in point of fact we find less of these than the history 
of the College shows before the societies came. The rivalry between them is a 
healthy one, and is conducted openly and in a manly way. 

" The societies must give back to the College the tone they have first received. I 
am persuaded that in any college where the prevailing life is true and earnest, the 
societies fed by its fountain will send back bright and quickening streams. They 
certainly give gladness and refreshment to our whole college life at Amherst." 

All of the fraternities represented at Amherst have chapter houses, 
and in most cases own them. These buildings are large enough to 
accommodate at least a portion of the members beside providing parlors, 
reading-rooms, and a lodge room for general use. The chapters of 
Chi Psi, Psi Upsilon, and Alpha Delta Phi now own the entire southern 


end of the square bounded by the village Common, Northampton Street, 
and South Prospect. 

The members of the fraternities are usually glad to welcome their 
friends for the inspection of the houses at any time, excepting only 
on Tuesday evenings, which are universally observed as " society 

Presuming that visitors to Amherst have acquaintances in each 
fraternity ready to become their hosts, the following order will be found 
convenient for a tour of the houses : 

The Delta Kappa Epsilon (Sigma Chapter) house is situated on 
Oak Grove Hill, Lessey Street, a short walk east from the Amherst 
House. The original portion of the house and the grounds were pur- 
chased by the chapter in 1885, and the new part added the same year. 
Together they now accommodate eighteen students. The Delta Kappa 
Epsilon fraternity was founded in 1844 at Yale University, and in 1890 
had thirty-one chapters and about eight thousand members. The 
Amherst Chapter was organized in 1846, the original members being 
six students of the class of 1848. The quarters of the chapter have 
been successively in North College, Cook's Block, and the present 
dwelling-house of W. H. H. Morgan on Maple Avenue. The chapter 
has thirty-four active and more than five hundred alumni members, 
among the more prominent of these latter being General F. A. Walker, 
president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Judge I. H. 
Maynard, assistant secretary of the Treasury in President Cleveland's 
administration ; Charles Hallock, editor of Forest and Stream ; Mel- 
vil Dewey, librarian of the State of New York ; Rufus G. Kellogg, donor 
of the Kellogg prizes in Amherst College. 

Returning to the Amherst House, and proceeding in the direction of 
the College, at the right are the 

Alpha Delta Phi (Amherst Chapter) houses, which occupy the lot 
on the corner of Pleasant and Sellen streets, and extending back to 
North Prospect Street. The new house was erected in 1890, and is a 
three-story and basement building, the materials used being Elyria 
sandstone, pressed brick, and terra cotta. On the first floor are drawing, 
banquet, and reading rooms ; while the two upper floors furnish accom- 
modations for eighteen members of the chapter. The house stands 
some distance back from the street, and faces the village Common. The 
chapter also owns the lot of land in the rear of this house, fronting on 



South Prospect Street. The old house stands in the rear of the new 
one, facing the side street. Originally a dwelling-house, it was pur- 
chased by the society in 1874. It was the first chapter house to be 
established in Amherst, and contains rooms for sixteen students. The 
Alpha Delta Phi fraternity was established in 1832, by Samuel Eels, and 
has a membership of over five thousand. The Amherst Chapter was 
the first chapter of a Greek-letter fraternity to be established at Amherst, 
and its total membership is a little over five hundred. The active 
membership of the chapter averages about thirty-three. 

Among the alumni of the chapter the names of Rev. Henry Ward 
Beecher, Rev. Roswell Dwight Hitchcock, Rt. Rev. Frederic Dan Hunt- 
ington, Rev. Richard Salter Storrs, Rev. Edward Hitchcock (president 
of Amherst College from 1845 to I ^54)> Hon. John E. Sanford, and 
Rev. E. Winchester Donald are prominent. Next to the Alpha Delta 
Phi houses, and facing the village Common, is the 

Psi Upsilon (Gamma Chapter) house. The building was erected as a 
residence for the first president of the College, Rev. Zephaniah S. Moore, 
and was the "President's House" until 1833. Its corner-stone was 
laid by Noah Webster, and the trustees of " The Collegiate Charitable 
Institution," September 18, 1821, directly following the inauguration of 
President Moore and the dedication of South College. It was bought 
by the chapter in August, 1879, an d now accommodates fourteen stu- 
dents. The Gamma Chapter was established in 1841, by sixteen mem- 
bers of the classes of 1842, 1843, anc ^ 1844. For some years it was 
virtually a junior class society. The first rooms were in South College ; 
and later, after one or two changes, in Cutler's Block. This latter 
building was burned July 3, 1879, destroying nearly all the possessions 
of the chapter. In 1890 the chapter bought the adjoining estate on the 
corner of the Common and Northampton Street, intending to erect here 
a second building. The Psi Upsilon fraternity was founded at Union 
College in 1833, and in 1891 had 17 chapters and about 7000 mem- 
bers. In that year the Gamma Chapter had 38 active members and 
425 living alumni, among whom are Ex-President Julius H. Seelye of 
Amherst College, Dr. Charles H. Parkhurst of New York, Ex-Governor 
Andrews of Connecticut, Hon. George B. Loring of Washington, Arthur 
S. Hardy of Hanover, N.H., Professor Herbert B. Adams of Johns 
Hopkins University, President H. H. Goodell of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College, and Henry D. Hyde, Esq., of Boston. 


On the corner of Northampton and South Prospect streets, adjoining 
the grounds of the Psi Upsilon Chapter, is the 

Chi Psi (Alpha Chi) Lodge, erected in 1884, after plans made by 
Robert S. Stephenson of New York. The Alpha was founded in 
November, 1864, by members of the classes of 1864, 1865, and 1866, 
and owns, in addition to the lot on which the house is situated, the estate 
in the rear, known as the Burt place. The membership is small, rarely 
exceeding six men from each class. The Chi Psi fraternity was founded 
at Union College in 1841, and has Alphas in sixteen colleges, embracing 
in their membership about three thousand men. The lodge contains 
rooms for thirteen members, beside ample parlors, library, and room for 
fraternity purposes. The fraternity is represented in public life by 
Chief Justice Fuller, Ex-Speaker T. B. Reed, J. Sterling Morton, and Ex- 
Postmaster General Dickinson, and among other members are Commo- 
dore Elbridge T. Gerry, Hugh Cole, Esq., Francis M. Scott, Frederick 
D. Tappan, William Astor of New York, General Duane, late Chief of 
Engineers, U. S. A., President Thomas W. Palmer of the Columbian 
Exposition, President Brainard of Middlebury College, and Robert Earl 
of the New York Court of Appeals. 

On the right, further down Northampton Street, stands the 

Theta Delta Chi (Mu Deuteron Charge) house, which was pur- 
chased by the charge in 1889, and an addition made in the summer 
of 1890. The charge was founded in 1885, by twenty-four members 
of the classes of 1885, 1886, 1887, and 1888, and for five years occu- 
pied the second and third stories of Dickinson's, and the adjoining 
block, Pleasant Street. The present house accommodates twenty stu- 
dents, and the membership of the charge in 1891 was thirty-five under- 
graduates and fifty-one alumni. 

The Theta Delta Chi fraternity was founded at Union College in 
1846, and comprised, in 1891, nineteen charges. Before the war the 
fraternity was very strong in the Southern States, but it is now repre- 
sented in that section almost solely by its alumni. 

Returning to the corner of Northampton Street, and crossing the 
Common, the building on the left corner of College Street is the 

Beta Theta Pi (Beta Iota Chapter) house, purchased for a chap- 
ter house in 1886, and accommodating twenty of the members. The 
chapter grew out of a local society, the "Torch and Crown," which 
was founded in 1878 by members of the class of 1881, and in the fall 


of 1879 occupied the present Theta Delta Chi chapter house, on 
Northampton Street. .The " Torch and Crown " received a charter from 
the Beta Theta Pi fraternity in 1883, and was made a chapter of that 
fraternity. In 1891 the fraternity had sixty chapters, and over nine 
hundred and fifty undergraduate members. 

Among its prominent members are Secretary of the Interior, John W. 
Noble ; Justices James M. Harlan, Stanley Matthews, and William B. 
Woods, of the Supreme Court of the United States ; besides ten United 
States senators, forty United States representatives, fifteen State gov- 
ernors, and six ministers to foreign countries. 

Proceeding down College Street, the second house at the left is the 

Chi Phi (Phi Chapter) house, built in 1885 by the chapter, then of 
nine years' standing. The building is of the Queen Anne style, and 
furnishes apartments for eleven students. From the time of the organ- 
ization of the chapter until the present house was completed, the head- 
quarters were in Palmer's Block, which once occupied the site of the 
town hall. The Chi Phi fraternity was founded in 1854, at Princeton 
College, and now has twenty-two chapters. Among the one hundred 
and sixty alumni and active members of the Phi Chapter are Hon. 
Henry Stockbridge, '77, of Baltimore, Md., and the Rev. H. H. Kelsey, 
'76, of Boston, who had much to do with the institution of the chapter. 

Further -down this street, and opposite the home of Ex-President 
Seelye, is the 

Phi Delta Theta (Massachusetts Beta) house. The chapter was 
founded May 9, 1888, with twenty- three members from the classes then 
in college, and at once leased its present building and grounds of their 
owner, Professor W. C. Esty, securing the right of future ownership. It 
was the sixty-fifth chapter of the fraternity, which was founded at Miami 
in 1848. During the War of the Rebellion the chapter-roll was reduced 
to five ; and two of these were the causes of the reawakening of the 
fraternity. The organization is controlled by a general council and 
province presidents, whose power is absolute within their spheres, a 
convention of the chapters once in two years, and a province conven- 
tion once in two years. In 1891 there were sixty-six undergraduate and 
twenty-four alumni chapters, the whole membership being 6803 under- 
graduates and alumni. The fraternity numbers among its members 
Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States. 

The only remaining fraternity house is situated on South Pleasant 


Street, and to reach it the visitor should return to the corner of North- 
ampton Street, and pass College Hall, the Library, and dwelling-houses, 
on the way to the Central Massachusetts station. 

The Delta Upsilon (Amherst Chapter) house was purchased in 1882, 
thirty-five years after the founding of the chapter. The rooms first 
occupied were in South, and later in North, College. The chapter was 
re-established in 1869, a hall being fitted up in Palmer's Block, which 
stood on the site of the town hall. Four years after, the chapter moved 
to quarters in Kellogg's Block, where a hall and several suites of rooms 
were occupied by the members, until the present house was entered. 
The Delta Upsilon fraternity was founded in 1834 at Williams College, 
and the Amherst Chapter in 1891 numbered twenty- nine active and 
334 alumni members. Among the latter are : Rev. George Washburn, 
president of Robert College, Constantinople ; Rev. Daniel Bliss, presi- 
dent of the Protestant College at Beirout, Syria ; William Swinton, author 
of Swinton's educational works; Rev. Hiram C. Hayden, president of 
Adelbert College, Cleveland, O. 




THE Massachusetts Agricultural College was one of the first institu- 
tions of its kind to be founded in the United States. By an act 
passed July, 1862, Congress granted to each State a portion of the 
public lands, the money from the sale of which, it was provided, should 
go toward establishing and maintaining at least one college where " the 
leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific studies, and 
including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are 
related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in order to promote the 
liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several 
pursuits and professions of life." The State legislature formally accepted 
this grant April 18, 1863, and afterward set aside one-third of it for the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology at Boston. The trustees for the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College were incorporated by an act of April 
29, 1863, and they found their share of the Congressional grant to be 
360,000 acres of land, which afterward yielded $146,000. The corpora- 
tion organized with Governor Andrew as president, A. W. Dodge, Esq., 
vice-president, and Charles L. Flint, secretary; but in 1864 the legisla- 
ture changed the legal name of the institution to the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College, and Hon. Henry E. French of Cambridge was 
elected president, the Governor remaining an ex-officio member of the 
board of trustees. The question of the location of the College provoked 
much discussion among the parties interested. The decision came when 
the town of Amherst promised $50,000, and sufficient land at a reason- 
able rate, the trustees accepting the offer May 25, 1864, and the Gov- 
ernor and Council approving the choice soon after. The present estate 
of the College 383^- acres was then purchased at a cost, including 
the buildings then standing, of about 43,000. The erection of the first 
college buildings was authorized by the trustees May 26, 1866. In this 
year President French resigned, and was succeeded by the Hon. Paul 
A. Chadbourne, who in his turn retired the following year because of ill 


health. The work of the trustees up to this time had been simply pre- 
paratory to the opening of the College, and, therefore, the list of actual 
presidents may be said to commence with President Clark, who suc- 
ceeded President Chadbourne. The terms of office of the presidents 
were as follows : 

Colonel William S. Clark, Ph.D., LL.D 1867-1877 

Charles Louis Flint, A.M., LL.B . 1879-1880 

Hon. Levi Stockbridge 1880-1882 

Hon. Paul Ansel Chadbourne (Second Term) 1882-1883 

James Carruthers Greenough, M.A 1883-1886 

President Henry Hill Goodell was the acting president during six 
months of 1883, and in July, 1886, was elected to the position which 
he still holds. 

The College was opened for students October 2, 1867, the entering 
class numbering thirty-three. The instructors numbered four. Before 
the close of the term there were fourteen more students. 

The faculty comprised, in 1891, twelve members exclusive of the 
president. This body has the general direction of the College in 
matters relating to the curriculum and to discipline. 

The State Board of Agriculture constitutes a board of overseers 
of the College, and through their special committees make frequent 
examinations of the work and condition of the institution. Their 
annual reports are submitted to the legislature, and are published as 
public documents. 

The degree of Bachelor of Science is awarded to successful graduates, 
the governor of the Commonwealth signing the diploma. By a special 
arrangement between the authorities of the College and the Boston 
University, the former has become the Agricultural Department of 
the University, and receives its students in that science. Students 
of the Agricultural are permitted to matriculate with the University, and 
on graduation may receive its degree of Bachelor of Science, in addition 
to that of the College, thus obtaining the privileges of alumni in both 
institutions. A military diploma is granted at the discretion of the 
professor of military science and tactics. 

The course of study at the College is entirely prescribed, and is 
largely scientific in its nature. There are ample provisions, however, 
for the study of literature and the languages. 

Generous financial aids are offered to students who wish to obtain an 


I6 5 

education at a small expense. As nearly all the scholarship funds of 
the College have been established by the legislature, students coming 
from homes within Massachusetts are favored before those from other 
States. In addition to the following specified sums, $5000 is devoted 
each year to the payment of those who perform work in the various 
departments. About $120 is given annually in prizes. The scholar- 
ships are : eighty State scholarships, established by the legislature of 
1886, $10,000; fourteen Congressional, established by the trustees, 
$1120; private bequests (the income of $3000) amounting to 5150. 
Application for one of the State scholarships is made to the State senator 
of the district in which the student resides ; and for a Congressional 
scholarship, to the representative to Congress. 

The necessary expenditures of a student in college are estimated as 
closely as possible in the accompanying table. It is assumed in these 
that the student actually pays for each item, any beneficiary money which 
may be credited to him by the College, or any other means which may 
be adopted to reduce the cost of an education, not being taken into 
consideration. It is believed that the estimate in the " Least " column 
may be followed without injurious deprivation of any kind. The students 
are required to room in the college dormitories, and with a room-mate ; 
the items of rent, furniture, fuel, and light are reduced by being shared. 
The actual cost of these items to each student is therefore entered in the 
estimates. In the rent of the higher-priced rooms, steam heat is included. 



Books and Stationery .... 
Room Rent 






















Furniture (annual average) . 
Board . . 
Fuel and Light 

*Military Suit 
Society and Class Taxts . . . 


Sundries . 

Boston University Course . . 
*Laboratorv Fee 





* Each of these items occur only once during the college course, and are not included in the totals. 


The military department of the College is under the direction of an 
officer of the United States army, detailed to the position by the Secre- 
tary of War. Instruction in military drill tactics is made one of the 
requirements of the College by the act of Congress providing for the 
establishment of the institution. Each student, not physically incapaci- 
tated, is thus under the surveillance of the commandant. The cadet 
battalion, organized with four companies, is officered by the students of 
the -upper classes ; and the drills are held three times each week. 
Recitations upon the tactics and the art of war, and practical instruc- 
tion in target, artillery, and mortar practice are features of the depart- 
ment. During the sessions of the College, the rooms of all the students 
are inspected once a week by the commandant. Most of the arms 
and ammunition used in the battalion are provided by the United 
States. The military diploma, awarded by the commandant at the sat- 
isfactory completion of the college course, recommends the receiver 
to an office if volunteer troops are ever called for by the State author- 

Connected with the Agricultural College in their aims, yet distinct in 
organization and work, are the State Agricultural Experiment Station 
and the Hatch Experiment Station. These are so nicely arranged that 
they supplement each other in their experiments, neither one attempting 
the same line of investigations as the other, although in several instances 
the same person is in charge of similar departments in the College and 
in both of the stations. This plan lessens the necessary expenses, and 
increases the funds available in every department of experiment, resulting 
in unusually large returns in proportion to the outlay. The organizations 
of the two departments are here given. 

The Massachusetts State Agricultural Experiment Station was 
established in 1882, by an act of the legislature, passed May 12 of that 
year. The Station was located at the State Agricultural College, forty- 
eight acres of land being leased from the College, and its management 
was vested in a board of control of seven members, the governor of the 
Commonwealth being president ex offido. The sum of $3000 was first 
appropriated for equipping the new station, and $5000 a year thereafter 
granted for its maintenance. This annual grant was increased in 1885 
to $10,000. The objects of the investigations of the Station were fully 
set forth in the original act as follows : " The causes, prevention, and 
remedies of the diseases of domestic animals, plants, and trees. The 

-111 I II ; 

** -- j R; 

Page 167. 



history and habits of insects destructive to vegetation, and the means of 
abating them. The manufacture and composition of both foreign and 
domestic fertilizers, their several values, and their adaptability to dif- 
ferent crops and soils. The values, under all conditions, as food, for all 
farm animals, for various purposes, of the several forage, grain, and root 
crops. The comparative value of green and dry forage, and the cost 
of producing and reserving it in the best condition. The adulteration 
of any articles of food intended for use of men or animals ; and in any 
other subjects which may be deemed advantageous to the agriculture 
and horticulture of the Commonwealth." 

After the organization of the Board of Control of the Experiment 
Station, Charles A. Goessmann, Ph.D., LL.D., was elected director and 
chemist, which positions he has held ever since. The director has six 
trained assistants in the chemical work and one in the field. The mem- 
bership of the Board of Control was increased in 1888 to eleven. They 
are elected for terms of years, two from the members of the State 
Board of Agriculture, two from the Board of Trustees of the State Agri- 
cultural College, one from the Massachusetts Society for promoting 
Agriculture, one from the Massachusetts State Grange, and one from 
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, appointed by the respective 
organizations, and the president of the State Agricultural College, the 
director of the Station, and the secretary of the State Board of Agricul- 
ture. This Board of Control submits to the legislature, through the 
director of the Station, an annual report of its investigations, twenty-five 
thousand copies of which have been printed each year since 1889. The 
Station also issues occasional bulletins of ten thousand copies each, and 
monthly statements of official analyses of commercial fertilizers during 
the months of April and October of every year. 

The work at the Experiment Station is limited only by the amount 
of money available. Each new source of revenue opens a corresponding 
channel of investigation. The annual income amounts to $16,500, of 
which $10,000 is received from the State, $5000 from the Hatch Experi- 
ment Station in return for doing the entire chemical work of that insti- 
tution, and about $1500 from certificates issued to dealers in commercial 
fertilizers as required by law. 

The grounds of the State Experiment Station are leased from the 
Agricultural College, at merely nominal rental, for a period of ninety- 
nine years, and comprise forty-eight and one-half acres, of which ten 


are woodland. Seventeen and three-quarters acres are on the west side 
of the county highway, and thirty and a half on the east side. 
The buildings of the Station are valued as follows : 

Chemical Laboratory (with fixtures) $15,000 

Agricultural and Physical Laboratory (two) 12,000 

Farmhouse 2,000 

Barn and Feeding Stables (with fixtures) 6,000 

The Hatch Experiment Station of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College was organized in 1887 under the provisions of the Hatch act, 
which passed Congress and was approved by the President, March 2, 
of that year. The act established experiment stations in all the States 
and Territories of the Union, with the object of promoting " scientific 
investigation and experiment, and the principle and application of agri- 
cultural science." For each station the annual appropriation of $15,000 
was granted ; of the first year's income, not more than twenty per cent, 
and the years following, not more than five per cent, of this sum might 
be used for erecting buildings for the Station. The president of the 
Agricultural College, Henry H. Goodell, A.M., was elected director, and 
Frank E. Paige, of Amherst, treasurer of the Station, which positions 
they have held ever since. The departments of the Station, as now 
established, are Agriculture, Horticulture, Entomology, and Meteorology. 
The Station is always engaged in investigations important to the farmer 
and other classes in the State. Quarterly bulletins of about eleven 
thousand copies are issued. Of the annual income, $5000 is paid by 
the Station to the chemical department of the State Experiment Station, 
where all the work of that kind is performed. The property of the 
Hatch Experiment Station is divided among the various departments 
as follows : 

Agricultural (barn) $4000 

Horticultural (greenhouses) 2800 

Entomological (insectary) 2000 

Meteorological (apparatus) 1800 


The Agricultural College is situated on North Pleasant Street, 
about a. mile from the village of Amherst. Lying upon the western 
slope of Mount Pleasant, it overlooks the entire Connecticut Valley, 


within the boundaries of the prehistoric lake. The extensive grounds 
are always admirably kept, and the buildings offer many things of in- 
terest to the visitor. The distance is convenient for a pleasant walk or 
drive, and as the institution has been considered by the leading agricul- 
turists who have visited it from the United States and Europe, as the 
finest in this country, it certainly should not be neglected. 

In making the tour of the college buildings, it will be found most 
convenient to enter the grounds by the way of Amity Street and Lincoln 
Avenue, or by North Pleasant Street, in either case commencing with 
the college barn, at the left, and following the course marked out in this 

The first building to be noticed is the 

College Barn, built in 1869, and altered to its present form in 1889 ; 
valued at $14,500. The building contains the specimens used for 
illustration in the department of agriculture in the College. For this 
purpose there are typical specimens of farm stock, representing the 
different breeds of horned cattle and swine, a valuable stallion, and a 
small flock of sheep. The apparatus for farm work is very complete. 
The building is so neatly kept as to be attractive even to persons who 
have no special connection with agricultural affairs. In the manage- 
ment of the college farm it is intended to illustrate the systems and 
methods best suited to the conditions of this locality, and in all the 
operations the possible educational effect is kept prominently in view. 
While labor on the farm is not compulsory, not a little is performed by 
the students, and every opportunity is given to any who specially desire 
instruction in any particular line of farm work to obtain it. The dwell- 
ing-house adjoining the barn is occupied by the superintendent of the 
college farm and his assistants. 

Some distance southward from these buildings, and just beyond the 
boundaries of the college grounds, is the D. G. K. Society house. This 
was bought in 1891, from Professor C. D. Warner, whose residence 
it was. 

The next building is the 

Drill Hall, erected in 1883, at an expenditure of $6500, a legislative 
appropriation for the purpose. The Armory, at the right of the entrance, 
contains the arms furnished by the State to the college corps of cadets. 
The main hall is 123 feet long and 48 feet wide, and has an asphalt 
floor. It is heated by a hot- water system, introduced in 1888. This 


comfortable winter quarters of the corps is used by the students as a 
gymnasium. The second floor of the building contains the command- 
ant's office, and a recitation room for the classes in military-tactics 
science. A short stairway leads into the tower of the building. On 
the campus adjoining this building are earthworks for use in mortar 
practice a part of the regular military training of the College. 

On the right is the 

College Chapel, completed in 1886, at a cost of $31,000, which was 
provided for the purpose by special legislative appropriations. The 
material used in construction is Pelham granite, with brownstone trim- 
mings. The two entrances at the south end of the building lead into 
the alumni headquarters, and by winding staircases to the hall above. 
The college library occupies the main portion of the lower floor. This 
contained, in 1891, about ten hundred volumes, and its rate of increase 
during the past three years has been twelve hundred .volumes annually. 
The president's office is situated on this floor. The second story forms 
a hall capable of seating six hundred people, and here the Sunday ser- 
vices of the College, and the commencement exercises are held. The 
building is heated by steam and lighted by electricity. 

The South College Dormitory, beyond, was first built in 1867, and 
contained several recitation rooms and the college library. On February 
4, 1885, it was destroyed by fire, and rebuilt in 1886, at a cost of 
$37,000, a special appropriation by the legislature. The building is 
brick, three stories in height, and contains twenty suites of double 
rooms for students. The south wing overlooks the college campus and 
parade ground. In the north wing are recitation rooms and the museum 
of the biological department. The collection in this museum contains 
representatives of every type of American animal, and is valued at about 
$3500. The office of the Hatch Experiment Station is in the tower of 
this building. 

The meteorological observatory of the Hatch Experiment Station is 
also located in the tower. The observatory was established by money 
granted under the Hatch Experiment Stations act of Congress, and it 
is modelled as nearly as possible after the Central Park observatory in 
New York City. Observations were commenced by Professor C. D. 
Warner, the first and present director, on January i, 1889. The instru- 
ments in use are all of the Draper self-recording pattern, which ordi- 
narily require the attention of the observer not oftener than once a week. 



The most important of them is the electrograph, which was constructed 
after Professor Warner's design by Elliott Brothers, London, England. 
It measures the electric potential of the atmosphere, and keeps a record 
by a delicate and continuous photographic process. The instrument, 
when received by the observatory in October, 1890, was considered the 
most delicate and the most complicated ever constructed. 

The instruments in the observatory, and their cost, are as follows : 

Electrograph $600 

Mercurial barometer 250 

Evaporimeter 240 

Sun thermometer 175 

Direction of wind 1 75 

Force of wind 1 75 

Rain-gauge 175 

Thermometer 30 

The meteoro- 
logical depart- 
ment issues 
monthly and an- 
nual bulletins of 
its observations, 
and these are sent 
to any one who 
applies for them. 
In 1890 the 
monthly circula- 
tion of the bulle- 
tins numbered 
400. Next is 
noticed the 

North College Dormitory, completed in the fall of 1868. Its cost 
was $36,000, and sixty- four students may be accommodated in it. The 
college reading-room is on the first floor. 

Just behind this building is the 

Laboratory Building, the first of the college buildings, erected in 
1867. Originally a two-story building, it has been altered, now being 
valued at $10,360. It now contains the chapel, used for morning 
prayers, the laboratory of the zoological department, and a part of the 

The Laboratory Building. 


chemical department, on the first floor ; the rooms of the mathematical, 
physical, and chemical departments, on the second ; and an interesting 
collection of agricultural implements from Japan in the third. This last 
story was formerly the drill hall of the cadet battalion, and is now used 
as a museum until a special building is erected. 

Across the ravine is the residence of the college pastor, and next to 
it is a 

Boarding-House, built by the College in 1868, costing $8000. For 
a number of years it was managed by the college authorities, but in 
1891 was in the hands of a boarding-club of sixty students. The house 
accommodates the family in charge of the practical details. 

The Barn, of the Hatch Experiment Station, is in the rear of the 
boarding-house. Built in 1889, and costing $4000, it is used for experi- 
ments in feeding farm stock, and in other matters of importance to the 
farmer. The building was burned in the spring of 1891 and immedi- 
ately rebuilt. 

Following the road as it completes the circle of the college grounds, 
the visitor finds himself before the 

Chemical Laboratory of the State Experiment Station, built of brick 
and sandstone. It faces to the south. The main building is two stories 
in height, measures 30 by 42 feet, and has a tower projecting from the 
southeast corner. Two parallel wings, each one story high and 32 feet 
long by 19 feet wide, join the rear of the building. The main house 
contains, on the ground-floor, the director's office, assistants' room, two 
small weighing-rooms, and passages leading into the wings, which are 
used as laboratories. Of the rooms on the upper floor, one is occupied 
by the assistants, and the other three are used for storing collections 
illustrating various agricultural industries. The building was erected in 
1883, after plans suggested by the director, and made by E. A. Ellsworth, 
a graduate of the College. Its cost was $15,000, including the apparatus 
it contains. Of this sum, $11,500 was a legislative appropriation, the 
rest coming from the regular income of the Station. The entire chemi- 
cal work of both the Massachusetts State and the Hatch Experiment 
stations is carried on in this laboratory. 

The Farmhouse and barn of the State Experiment Station are situ- 
ated about one hundred and fifty yards north of the chemical laboratory, 
and are valued together at $8000. The house and main barn were built 
before the farm passed into the hands of the State, and has been re- 


modelled from time to time since. Here resides the farmer of the 
Station, who is in general charge of the farm work under the superin- 
tendence of the director. The barn contains the seed-room, grain- 
room, silos, scales for weighing the crops, and live stock. In 1886 the 
feeding-stable and first wing were added, and shortly after another stable 
and wing of the same size were built in the rear of the first. Experi- 
ments in feeding and digestion that have been carried on here are 
among the most important to farmers of all that the Station has under- 
taken. A visit to the barn cannot fail to be of interest. Everything is 
kept in most perfect order and neatness. The buildings are subject to 
frequent change, depending upon the nature of the questions under 
investigation. The creamery attached to the barn was built in 1887, 
and the ice-house of one hundred tons' capacity was erected at the same 

Just across the town highway from the Chemical Laboratory stands the 
Agricultural and Physical Laboratory of the State Experiment 
Station, a brick building, two and a half stories high, with brownstone 
trimmings, and a frontage of forty feet, and a depth of thirty-five feet. 
This was the first building in this country erected for the special purpose 
of studying the more intricate questions of plant growth with reference 
to agricultural plants, and the relation of fungus growth to plant dis- 
eases. iMvas completed early in 1890, at a cost of $10,000, appropri- 
ated by the State legislature. Its outfit cost nearly $3000. The second 
floors are divided into four, of equal size each. The lower floor is 
devoted to microscopic investigations. It contains an office with two 
laboratories and a photographic studio, supplied with an overhead rail- 
road for bringing large plants from the shed to the camera. The second 
story is occupied by the assistant superintendent of the field and feeding 
experiments. He has an office, and a chemical laboratory for studying 
the physiological condition of the soil, and a private apartment. In the 
rear of the building, and connecting with it, is a covered shed, twenty- 
five feet square ; a glass house, of the same size ; and a greenhouse, 
twelve feet wide, and forty feet long. From the open side of the cov- 
ered shed, three parallel railways extend sixty feet on to the grounds. 
Within the shed are turn-tables and tracks, which lead into the glass 
house ; and altogether they furnish a very convenient method of trans- 
porting the plants under investigation to and from the open air. This 
system of connecting shed and glass houses and photographic studio by 


means of railways is modelled upon a plan used by Dr. Hellriesgel, at 
Beruburg, Germany. The building was designed, in conformity with 
special instructions, by E. A. Ellsworth of Holyoke, a graduate of the 
College. It is maintained by a portion of the funds of the Hatch Experi- 
ment Station. 

Following the college road as it turns again in the direction of the 
town, the dwelling-house at the right is the home of the professor of 
horticulture. Beyond is the 

Botanic Museum of the College, built in 1866, at a cost of $5180. 
It is a two-story frame structure, 43 by 45 feet, and was one of the four 
buildings erected about the time of the opening of the College. On the 
first floor is a laboratory and recitation room. On the floor above is the 
Knowlton Herbarium, collected by W. W. Denslow of New York, of fifteen 
thousand species, one of the finest collections in the country. A large 
collection of native woods, and fifty specimens of wood from the Hima- 
laya Mountains, made by the celebrated travellers, the Von Schlagentwelt 
brothers, are also kept in this room. One of the most interesting 
objects in the room is a cast of a mammoth squash, grown in the plant 
house in 1873, which actually lifted, in the course of its growing, a weight 
equal to forty-five hundred pounds, and for some days after an accidental 
cracking of the shell supported five thousand pounds. The office of the 
college treasurer is in this building, his hours being from four to five 
o'clock one or two afternoons of each week. 

The neighboring stable was built in 1885 for the use of the horti- 
cultural department of the College, cost $1500, and is conveniently 
arranged for the use of the department. 

The President's House, on the hill-side, was built in 1884 for the 
use of President Greenough, and cost $11,500. It is still the property 
of the College, and occupied as a residence by W. P. Brooks, professor 
of agriculture. 

On the land between this building and the stable, the horticultural 
department makes experiments in growing small fruits and berries. A 
fine vineyard is at the north of the president's house, and a large peach 
orchard and a nursery at the east. These contain many of the finest 
varieties of vines and trees, which are cultivated entirely for experiment. 

The Durfee Plant House, a gift of the late Dr. Nathan Durfee of 
Fall River, at one time treasurer of the College, was built in 1868 at an 
expense of $12,000. On January 23, 1883, the house was partially 

Page 185. 



18 7 

destroyed by fire, but was immediately rebuilt, and is now valued the 
same as originally. The main house consists of an octagon, 40 feet in 
diameter, and two wings each 60 feet long and 30 wide. A workroom 
in the rear of the octagon communicates with two parallel pits each 50 
feet long. A small wing, 24 by 16 feet, opens from the northeast corner 
of the octagon. The main house contains many types of plants for 
illustration and educational purposes. These are provided from the 

The Insectary. 

income of a $10,000 fund, the gift of the late Leonard M. Hills and his 
son Henry F. Hills, of Amherst. The pits and the small wing are used 
for growing marketable plants and flowers. 

The Greenhouse of the Hatch Experiment Station was constructed in 
the fall of 1888, after special plans devised by Professor S. T. Maynard, 
the head of the horticultural division. Completely fitted, it cost $2800, 
and is designed for experiments in plant-growing, with different methods 
of heating. There is a main room, containing the heatingapparatus, 
and two parallel greenhouses of exactly the same size and construction, 
extending from the south side. One of them is heated by steam, and 


the other by hot water. Valuable investigations are made here each 
winter, and the results widely published. 

The grounds at the south of this group of buildings is used by the 
horticultural department for experiments in fruit and ornamental tree- 
culture. The farmhouse on the opposite side of the road is one of the 
buildings bought with the land at the time of the establishment of the 
College. The small building at the left is the 

Insectary of the entomological department of the Hatch Experi- 
ment Station, built in 1889. The expense of its construction, $2000, 
was met by the Agricultural College and the Massachusetts Society for 
the Promotion of Agriculture. The investigations of this department 
relate to the life and habits of insects injurious to vegetation, and are 
under the direction of the State entomologist, Professor Charles H. 
Fernald. The building is a story and a half high, 28 by 20 feet 
in area, and has adjoining it a greenhouse 30 feet long and 18 
wide. The ground-floor contains the entomologist's office, a labora- 
tory, and an "insecticide room," where the various compounds for 
killing insects are tested. The laboratory occupies the entire half of 
the floor adjoining the greenhouse. This latter is divided into a hot 
room and a cold room, which are used for breeding insects. In the 
cellar of the main house are vaults for wintering such insects as may be 
under investigation. It was in this building that the extended investiga- 
tions of the gypsy moth, for the destruction of which the State has 
expended much money, were first made. The department is constantly 
receiving queries from all over the country, principally this State, how- 
ever, in regard to the destruction of common and injurious insects. 




\ A/E invite gentlemen who appreciate the best 
class of Tailoring and are willing to pay a 
trifle more than is charged for cheap work, to wait 
for the arrival of MR. KEXDRICK, who will repre- 
sent me in Amherst, and show samples of our 
latest styles. We are direct importers, and cater 
especially to students, doing the largest student 
trade of any strictly fine firm in the country. 


5 Park Street - - - Boston. 




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and Illuminators, 

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Giving the most refined and artistic decorative effects which can be 
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Established 1848. 



Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 



267 Main Street, opposite Academy of MUSIC, Northampton, Mass. 


* Caterer ar?d * <?oi?feetior?er 



Students' Boarding House. 

Board, $4.00 per week. A few Good Rooms to rent. 









Breech-Loading Shot Guns, Rifles, Revolvers, 
Fishing Tackle, Ammunition, * Lawn Tennis and Base Ball Goods a Specialty. 

Repairing promptly done on Guns, Pistols, Umbrellas, Parasols, 
etc., etc. All styles of Stencil Cutting, and General Jobbing. 

No. 445 MAIN STREET, Opposite Court Square. 



Pleasantly situated one block from the College. Newly furnished. 
Hard wood floors. Open fires. Rooms with or without meals, for 
Students and Summer Guests. Table and Service excellent. 














The Authentic 
sues of 1864, '79 
now Thoroughly 
and as a distinguishing title, bears the name of 


Editorial work upon this revision has been in 
active progress over 1O Years, not less than 10O 
paid editorial laborers having been engaged 
upon it, and not less than $3OO,OOO having been 
expended before the first copy was printed. 

Critical examination is invited. Get the Best. 

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Sold by all Booksellers. Illustrated Pamphlet free. 
Published by G. & C. MEKRIAM & CO., Springfield, Mass., U.S. A. 

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Semi-Centennial Year. -x- -x- 1841-1891, 

Under the charge of REV. WILLIAM GALLAGHER, A.M. (Harvard}, 

PH.D. (Amherst), for eigHt years Master in 

Boston Latin School. 

Seven instructors in the Faculty, representing five institutions. 
Thoroughly equipped Classical and Scientific Courses. Steam heat, 
bath-rooms, new chemical and physical laboratories, drawing-room, 
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Capital subscribed $2,000,000.00 Surplus and undivided profits.. ..$496,716.85 

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This Company solicits correspondence about all first-class investments. Buys and negotiates 
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mortgage loans. CHARLES N. FOWLER, President. 


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Philadelphia, 4th and Chestnut Sts. Boston, 117 Devonshire St. Berlin, Germany. 

Represented by EDWARD B. MARSH, Amherst, Mass. 



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A guide to Amherst, and the surrounding charms 
of the Connecticut Valley, to Amherst College, and 
to the Massachusetts Agricultural College. 

Will be mailed, carefiilly packed in a heavy envelope, 

and protected by metal " corners" on 

receipt of $1.10. 

Address the maker and publisher, 







This book is due on the last date stamped below, or 

on the date to which renewed. 
Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 

PEC 1| 1958 


APR 3 1995 


LD 21A-50m-9,'58 

General Library 

University of California